Physiology Flashcards Preview

3MB Haematology > Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology Deck (88)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is blood?

Specialised fluid composed of cells suspended in a liquid called plasma

2

What is the average adult blood volume in litres?

4.5-6 litres

3

What are the 3 types of blood cell?

Red blood cell
White blood cell
Platelets

4

What are the main components of plasma?

Water (90%)
Proteins (mostly albumin, Ig, clotting factors)
Nutrients
Salts

5

What are the 2 types of white cells?

Granulocytes
Agranulocytes

6

List the main granulocytes

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

7

List the main agranulocytes

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

8

What do red blood cells do?

Carry oxygen
Buffer CO2

9

What do platelets do?

Stop bleeding

10

What do white blood cells do?

Fight infection and pathology

11

What is the process by which blood cells are produced?

Haemopoiesis from pleuripotent stem cells

12

Where are the sites of haematopoiesis in the embryo?

Yolk sac
Liver
Spleen

13

Where are the sites of haematopoiesis from birth to maturity?

Bone marrow
Liver
Spleen

14

Where are the sites of haematopoiesis in the adult?

Bone marrow of skull, ribs, sternum, pelvis and proximal femur

15

What processes have to occur to a stem cell in order to make blood?

Proliferation
Differentiation
Self-renewal
Quiescence

16

Outline the cell stages of erythropoiesis

Pronormoblast - early normoblast - intermediate normoblast - late normoblast - reticulocyte - erythrocyte

17

Describe the structure of a neutrophil

Segmented nucleus (polymorph)
Neutral-staining

18

What are the functions of a neutrophil?

Phagocytose invaders
Attract other immune cells

19

Describe the structure of a eosinophil

Bi-lobed
Bright orange-red granules

20

What are the functions of an eosinophil?

Fight parasitic infections
Involved in hypersensitivity

21

Describe the structure of a basophil

Infrequent in circulation
Large deep purple granules with obscured nucleus

22

What are the functions of a basophil?

Circulating version of a mast cell
Mediates hypersensitivity

23

Describe the structure of a monocyte

Large single nucleus
Faintly staining granules, often vacuolated

24

What are the functions of a monocyte?

Enter tissues and become macrophages
Phagocytose invaders
Attract other immune cells
Live longer than neutrophils

25

Describe the structure of a lymphocyte

Mature: small with condensed nucleus and cytoplasm
Activated: blue cytoplasm extending neighbouring red cells with more open nucleus

26

What are the functions of a lymphocyte?

Numerous subtypes and functions
Cognate response

27

What methods can be used to identify primitive precursors?

Immunophenotype (antigen on cell surface)
Bio-assay (culture in vitro)

28

What is a common site for bone marrow biopsy?

Posterior iliac crest

29

Do red blood cells have a nucleus and/or mitochondria?

No nucleus or mitochondria, thus no DNA either

30

What is the average life-span of a red blood cell?

120 days