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Flashcards in Physiology Deck (54)
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1

sources of estrogen

ovary -->17B-estradiol placenta --> estriol adipose --> estrone

2

potency of estrogen types

estradiol > estrone > estriol

3

function of estrogen

-development of genatalia, breast, and female fat distribution -growth of follicle, endometrial proliferation, and myometrial excitability -upregulation of estrogen, LH, and progesterone receptors; feedback inhibition on LH and FSH; then LH surge; stimulation of prolactin secretion -increases transport proteins, SHBG; increases HDL and decreases LDL

4

in pregnancy, what happens to estradiol, estrone, and estriol

estradiol and estrone are increased by 50-fold estriol increases by 1000fold --> indicator of fetal well being

5

estrogen receptors are expressed in ______ and translocate to________

the cytoplasm; the nucleus when bound by ligand

6

7

sources of progesterone

corpus luteum, placenta, adrenal cortex, testes

8

function of progesterone?

-stimulates endometrial secretions and spiral artery development

-pregnancy maintenance

-decreased myometrial excitability

-production of thick cervical mucus (inhibits sperm entry into the uterus)

-increases body T

-inhibits gonadotropins (LH FSH)

-uterine SM relaxation

-decreased estrogen receptor expressivity

-prevents endometrial hyperplasia

9

After delivery, pregesterone _______; why?

falls

this disinhibits prolactin and allows lactation

10

increased progesterone is indicative of?

ovulation

11

progesterone -->

prolactin -->

pro-gestation

pro-lactation

12

tanner stages of sexual development

each category can have separate stages

ex: stage 2 genatalia and stage 3 pubic hair

13

14

15

16

length of follicular phase vs luteal phase of menstruation

follicular varies in length

luteal is usually 14 days

17

decrease in progesterone leads to decreased...

fertility

18

estrogen stimulates...

progesterone maintains...

estrogen --> endometrial proliferation

prog --> endometrium to support implantation

19

oligomenorrhea

>35 day cycle

20

polymenorrhea

<21 day cycle

21

metrorrhagia

intermenstrual bleeding

frequent but irregular menstruation

22

menorrhagia

heavy menstrual bleeding

>80mL blood loss or >7 days of menses

23

menometrorrhagia

heavy, irregular menstruation at irregular intervals

24

increased estrogen leads to --> a --> b --> c --> d --> e

a - LH surge

b - ovulation

c - progesterone from corpus luteum

d - progesterone falls

e - mestruation (apoptosis of endometrial cells)

 

25

oogenesis/spermatogenesis

26

primary oocytes

are 2N, 4C (46 sister chromatids)

begin meiosis I during fetal life and complete meiosis I just prior to ovulation

27

in oogenesis

meiosis I is arrested in_____ for _____

meiosis II is arrested in _____ until ____

1 - prophase 1 for years until ovulation (primary oocytes)

2 - metaphase II until fertilization (secondary oocytes) --> "until an egg MET a sperm"

28

what happens to secondary oocyte if fertilization does not occur?

if it doesnt occur within 1 day, secondary oocyte degenerates

29

ovulation physiology

increased estrogen --> increased GnRH receptors on anterior pituitary --> estrogen surge  then stimulates LH release --> ovulation (rupture of follicle)

increased temperature (progesterone induced)

30

mittelschmerz

transient mid-cycle ovulatory pain; associated with peritoneal irritation (ffollicular swelling, fallopian tube contraction)

 

can mimic appendicitis