Flashcards in Physiological pregnancy symptoms& pre-conceptual care Deck (18)
What is alpha-foetoprotein?
-A foetal hormone involved in pregnancy
-Produced in the liver of a developing fetus
-Elevated levels could indicate other cancers
What neurological physiological changes occur due to pregnancy?
-Increase in CSF
-Engorgement of epidural veins
-Decreased LA volumes required
What cardiac physiological changes occur due to pregnancy?
-Left ventricular hypertrophy
-Decreased systemic vascular resistance
What GI physiological changes occur due to pregnancy?
-Lower oesophageal sphincter tone
-Increased risk of aspiration
-decreased conc. of liver enzymes
What renal physiological changes occur due to pregnancy?
-Increased renal blood flow
-Decreased plasma urine and creatinine
-Increased urinary protein and glucose
-Increased risk of UTI
What endocrine physiological changes occur due to pregnancy?
-Increased progesterone& oestrogen
-Placenta secretes relaxin, human placental lactogen and human chorionic gonadotrophin
-Increased cortisol secretion by adrenal glands
What musculoskeletal physiological changes occur due to pregnancy?
-Increased ligamentous laxity
-Increased risk of dislocation
-Increased lumbar lordosis
What respiratory physiological changes occur due to pregnancy?
-Increased mechanical ventilation (increased total volume & RR)
-Decreased function residual capacity
Is there a change in bicarbonate(mmol/l) during pregnancy?
Is there a change in base excess during pregnancy
How can we treat a PE in pregnancy
-Low molecular weight heparin
What GI tract changes occur in pregnancy?
-Gastric pH increasing & intestinal motility reduced
-This may lead to delayed absorption
What renal changes occur in pregnancy?
-Kidney size increases by 1cm
-Increase in kidney volume by up to 30%
-Dilatation of the renal,calyces, pelvis & ureters
-GFR increase by 40-65%
-Serum creatinine conc. fall 35-55 micromol/L
What is a MEOWS chart& what is it used for?
Modified early obstetric warning system
-Used to track early physiological parameters and aid early recognition of acutely unwell women
What are the folic acid requirements for pregnant women
-400mcg of folic acid before conception ( at least 3 months before)
-5mg Folic acid for those at higher risk of neural tube defects
What makes a woman at higher risk of having a baby with neural tube defects?
-Maternal or Paternal neural tube defect
-Previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect
-Family history of neural tube defects
-Pre-existing diabetes mellitus
-Anti-epileptic diabetes mellitus
What is different in pregnancy ABCDEF approach?
-After 20 weeks we need to be aware of compression of the abdominal aorta & inferior vena cava by the gravid uterus when a pregnant woman lies in the supine position
-So we'd have to give an emergency c-section if the mother is injured/dead/fainted
-You can't lie a pregnant woman flat when she faints; need to lie her to the side or sit her up so she's more comfortable