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Flashcards in Physical Sciences Deck (79)
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1

Anything that has mass and occupies space

Matter

2

Characterized by their ability to retain their shape. They melt when heated and vaporize only slightly. All substances become ______ if cooled sufficiently.

Solids

3

These take the shape of their containers, yet cannot be compressed to any significant extent. Their volume is constant unless evaporation is occurring. They crystallize when chilled sufficiently; heat causes them to vaporize.

Liquids

4

They expand to fill any available space. A compressible fluid, with the volume determined by the pressure and temperature of the environment. The volume varies inversely with pressure.

Gases

5

The law stating that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure. If the pressure increases, the volume decreases (the opposite is also true)

Boyle's Law

6

________ makes it possible for some elements and compounds to transform from a solid to a gas phase without becoming a liquid (I.e. Dry ice turning into a gas at room temperature)

Sublimination

7

Some gases can turn directly into a solid (e.g. The formation of frost)

Deposition

8

The amount of matter in a chemical substance

Mass

9

Divide mass by volume

Density. D=m/v

10

Various properties of matter in the solid phase that give it a high resistance to its shape-changing when force is applied

Hardness

11

Resistance to fracture or plastic (permanent) deformation due to friction from a sharp object

Scratch hardness

12

Resistance to plastic (permanent) deformation due to a constant load from a sharp object

Indentation hardness

13

Height of the bounce of an object dropped on the material, related to elasticity.

Rebound hardness

14

This scale is used to rate minerals 1-10 on hardness. (1=talc 10=diamond)

Moh's scale of hardness

15

Characteristics that make up physical composition of a substance. (I.e. Color, form, electrical conductivity, density)

Physical properties

16

When water changes from a gas (vapor) to a liquid (water) to a solid (ice), but the molecules themselves do not change.

Physical change

17

When a substance changes into something else/whenever compounds are formed or decomposed. Usually not reversible. (I.e. Formation of rust)

Chemical change

18

__________ show the number of molecules or formula units of the reactants and products.

Chemical reaction

19

These subatomic particles have a negative charge and are attracted to positively charged protons (this attraction keeps them in orbit around the nucleus)

Electrons

20

These are composed of only one atom and cannot be separated into different substances except in some instances by radioactive decay or by nuclear reactions

Chemical elements

21

This number is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of their atoms

Atomic number

22

The sum of protons and neutrons

Atomic mass

23

The chemical combination of two or more elements

Compounds

24

This chart arranges all the elements from left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number and generally coincide with their increasing atomic mass.

The periodic table of elements

25

Number of total known elements

117 elements

26

Number of naturally occurring elements (the rest are synthetic)

94

27

The measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Not an absolute scale.

The pH scale

28

Solutions with a pH scale less than 7.0

Acidic

29

Solutions with a pH greater than 7.0

Basic or alkaline

30

A water soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens, used to test materials for acidity

Litmus