Flashcards in Photosynthesis Deck (95)
What is a consumer?
Living organism that obtains its nutrients by feeding on other organisms
Fungi/bacteria that feed on dead organic matter
Symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water + light energy = glucose + oxygen
What does organic mean?
Related to/derived from living matter
Describe brief definition of photosynthesis?
Light energy is converted into chemical energy in organic molecules (inorganic molecules water/CO2 are used and O2 is produced)
Why is photosynthesis the most vital process on earth?
Forms the basis of food chains - provides the energy consumers/decomposers need
Difference between photosynthesis and respiration?
Photosynthesis uses CO2 and releases O2, respiration uses O2 and releases CO2
What is important about a chloroplast?
Site of photosynthesis
What other organelles are chloroplasts similar to?
Mitochondria - both thought to of evolved from prokaryotes originally
Size of chloroplasts?
2-10 micro meters
What is endosymbiosis?
The process where photosynthesis evolved in prokaryotes and over time were taken into eukaryote cells
What evidence is there for endosymbiosis and chloroplasts evolving from mitochondria?
Chloroplasts are only produced from division of other chloroplasts (different process from plant division), chloroplasts have their own genome of circular DNA and own ribosomes
What is special about the chloroplast membrane?
Double membrane = chloroplast envelope
What does the outer membrane of chloroplasts do?
Allows small ions/molecules to pass into chloroplast
What does the inner membrane do?
Controls molecules entering and leaving the chloroplast (between storm and cystol)
What does inner membrane rely on?
What is a grana?
A stack of thylakoids (discs)
What connects grana to one another?
What is the chloroplast membrane?
Both the outer and inner membrane
What ribosomes do chloroplast contain?
What is a photosystem?
A funnel shaped collection of accessory pigments with a reaction centre (containing a complex of proteins and chlorophyll molecules) embedded in the thylakoid membrane)
What is the primary pigment in a photosystem?
What actually are thylakoids?
A third internal system of membranes folded into interconnected plates = thylakoids/lamellae
Where does the light-dependent stage happen?
On the thylakoid membranes of the grana
Where and how is light trapped?
Trapped by the reaction centre, in the grana
Where are all the pigments needed for the LDS kept?
In the reaction centers (in photosystems)
What is the stroma?
The gel like medium inside of chloroplasts, carries starch/oil grains swell as enzymes, DNA loops and small ribosomes
What happens in the stroma?
The light-independent stage