Flashcards in Phase I, Block V - Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare Deck (33)
What is chemical warfare?
Employment of chemical agents intended for use in military operations to kill, injure, or incapacitate personnel.
What are the four types of chemical agents?
- Nerve agents
- Blister agents
- Blood agents
- Choking agents
Define nerve agent and give some examples.
- Liquid agent that disrupt nerve impulses to the body while damaging body functions rather than tissue.
- Sarin (GB), Tabun (GA), Soman (GD), and VX.
Define blister agent and give some examples.
- Solid or liquid agent that can cause inflammation, blisters, and general destruction of tissues often resulting in temporary blindness and/or death.
- Distilled mustard (HD), Lewisite (L), Phosgene Oxime (CX), and Levinstein Mustard (HL).
Define blood agent and give some examples.
- Gaseous agent that attack enzymes carrying oxygen in the blood stream, which can cause rapid breathing or choking due to lack of oxygen in the blood.
- Hydrogen Cyanide (AC), Cyanogen Chloride (CK), and Arsine (SA).
Define choking agent and give some examples.
- Gaseous or liquid agent with initial symptoms include: tears, dry throat, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Lungs can become filled with fluid, making victim feel as if they are drowning, causing rapid and shallow breathing.
- Phosgene (CG), Diphosgene
What is M9 Chemical Agent Detector Paper?
Detects the presence of liquid chemical agents by turning red/reddish color; does not detect chemical agent vapors.
What is atropine/2-PAM-chloride Auto Injector?
Used as therapy for nerve agent casualties. Issued for intramuscular injection, self-aid or first aid.
What is biological warfare?
Use of agents to cause disease, sickness, or death to reduce the effectiveness of opposing combatant forces.
What are the two types of biological agents?
List of pathogens that could be used as biological agents.
Bacteria, rickettsia, viruses, fungi, protozoa, prions.
What is are the two category of toxins?
Categorization based on source that produce them and physiological affects caused in humans.
What are the major grouping by source for toxins?
Mycotoxins, bacterial toxins, algal toxins, animal venoms, plant toxins.
What are the primary groups based on physiological effects for toxins?
Neurotoxins, cytotoxins, enterotoxins, and dermatoxins.
In regards to CBR, what is IPE?
Individual Protective Equipment
What are the components included in IPE for CBR?
- Protective mask MCU-2P with components (C-2 canister filter)
- Advanced chemical protective garment
- Chemical protective gloves and liners
- Chemical protective overboots and laces
- Skin decontamination kit
What tool is used to dictate which IPE is worn?
Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) level
What is radiological warfare?
Deliberate use of radiological weapons to produce widespread injury and death of all life.
What are the types of nuclear explosions?
- High altitude air burst
- Air burst
- Surface burst
- Shallow underwater burst
- Deep underwater burst
Explain high altitude air burst nuclear explosion?
Occurs at altitudes 100,000 feet or more, with ionosphere disruptions and EMP.
Explain airburst nuclear explosion.
Fireball does not reach the surface; vacuum created collects debris caused by severe blast damage resulting in radiation fallout.
Explain surface burst nuclear explosion.
Has worst fallout due to fireball touching the surface resulting in massive radioactive fallout.
Explain shallow underwater burst nuclear explosion.
Small fireball and blast wave, however causes large waves and water contamination.
Explain deep underwater burst nuclear explosion.
Similar to underwater burst but with less visual effect and yields greater contaminated water.
What are two types of shipboard shielding stations?
What is a ready-shelter station?
- Inside the weather envelope with access to deep shelter
- Provide minimum shielding from nuclear radiation and allow crew to remain close to battle stations.
What is a deep-shelter station?
- Located low in the ship and near the centerline.
- Provide maximum shielding from nuclear radiation; requiring personnel to be far from battle stations.
What is Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP)?
Management tool used to coordinate use of systems and equipment in Chemical or Biological environment.
What is MOPP level 0?
Issue IPE, accessible in 5 minutes