Flashcards in Phase I, Block II - First Aid Deck (27)
What are the three objectives of first aid?
- Prevent further injury
- Prevent inection
- Prevent the loss of life
What are four methods of controlling bleeding?
- Direct pressure
- Pressure points
- Use of tourniquet (last resort)
What is a pressure point?
Point on the body where a main artery lies near the skin surface and over the bone. Applying physical pressure to this point can reduce or stop blood flow.
What are the 11 principal pressure points?
- Superficial temporal artery (temple)
- Facial artery (jaw)
- Common carotid artery (neck)
- Subclavian artery (collar bone)
- Brachial artery (inner upper arm)
- Brachial artery (inner elbow)
- Radial/Ulnar artery (wrist)
- Femoral artery (upper thigh)
- Iliac artery (groin)
- Popliteal artery (knee)
- Anterior/posterior tibial artery (ankle)
What are the three classifications of burns?
- First degree
- Second degree
- Third degree
What are symptoms for a first degree burn?
Produces redness, warmth and mild pain.
What are symptoms for a second degree burn?
Causes red, blistered skin and severe pain.
What are symptoms for a third degree burn?
Destroys tissue, skin and bone in severe cases, however severe pain may be absent due to nerve endings being destroyed.
What are the two types of fractures?
What is a closed/simple fracture?
Broken bone without break in the skin.
What is a open/compound fracture?
Broken bone with break in the skin, with possible bone protrusion.
What are symptoms for an electric shock?
Can range from little to no evidence of injury to severe trauma with associated cardiac arrest.
What are indications of someone with an obstructed airway?
Inability to talk, grasping and pointing to the throat, exaggerated breathing efforts, and skin turning bluish color.
What are two types of heat related injuries?
- Heat exhaustion
- Heat stroke
What is heat exhaustion and symptoms?
- Serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart and lungs.
- The skin is cool, moist, and clammy, and pupils are dilated. Body temperature may be normal or high; the victim is usually sweating profusely.
What is heat stroke and symptoms?
- Condition caused by breakdown of sweating mechanism.
- Victim is unable to eliminate excessive body heat buildup. Symptoms may include hot and/or dry skin, uneven pupil dilation, and weak, rapid pulse.
What are three types of cold weather injuries?
- Superficial frostbite
- Deep frostbite
What is hypothermia and symptoms?
- General cooling of the whole body caused by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature, cold moisture, snow or ice.
- Victim may appear pale and unconscious, breathing is slow and shallow, pulse faint or undetectable; body tissues feel semi-rigid, arms and legs may feel stiff.
What is superficial frostbite?
When ice crystals form in the upper skin layers after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
What is deep frostbite?
Develops when ice crystals form in the deeper tissues after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
What is shock?
When the body suffers from insufficient blood flow throughout the body as a result of severe injury or illness.
What are the five types of shock?
What is septic shock?
Results from bacteria multiplying in the blood and releasing toxins. Common causes are pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections (such as ruptured appendix) and meningitis.
What is anaphylactic shock?
Severe hypersensitivity or allergic reaction. Causes include allergy to insect stings, medicines or foods.
What is cardiogenic shock?
Occurs when the heart is damaged and unable to supply sufficient blood to the body.
What is hypovolemic shock?
Caused by severed blood and fluid loss which makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body.