Flashcards in Phase 3 HEENT Deck (26)
What is the standard treatment protocol for a patient presenting with nasal hematoma?
1. Refer to a medical officer as soon as possible
2. Drain the blood by making small incision in the lining over the hematoma. Once the blood is removed, pack wound with gauze.
What are some exam findings suggestive of nasal hematoma?
1. Swelling of the nasal septum.
What is the standard treatment for a patient presenting with allergic rhinitis?
2. Intranasal corticosteroids
What follow up care could be suggested for a patient suffering from allergic rhinitis?
Possible referral to an allergist to desensitize the patient over time.
What are some symptoms a patient complaining of allergic rhinitis might present with?
1. Runny nose
3. Tearing of eyes
4. Itchy nose, mouth and eyes
What is the standard treatment protocol for a patient presenting with acute sinusitis?
1. Antibiotics (Azithromycin; amoxicillin)
What are some exam findings suggestive of acute sinusitis?
1. Facial tenderness over sinuses
2. Increased upper pain when teeth are tapped
3. Runny Nose
4. Redness over sinuses
__________ are painful erosions in the oral mucosa, usually inside the lip or the cheek.
Aphthous Ulcers (canker sores)
What medication mixture works well for patients suffering from aphthous ulcers?
***equal parts liquid diphenhydramine, viscous lidocaine and liquid maalox***
What patient instructions (information) should be provided to patients concerning aphthous ulcers?
1. Perform good oral hygiene
__________ is an infection by bacteria in the posterior oropharynx and or tonsils.
Streptococcal (Strep) Pharyngitis
Group A beta streptococcus bacteria (GABHS)
What are the common exam findings associated with streptococcal pharyngitis?
4. Erythema (redness)
6. Exudates (pus or white pockets) on tonsils
When assessing a patient for throat soreness, what two things must a medic rule out?
1. Trismus (lock jaw) - ask patient to speak
2. Uvula deviation
What is the standard treatment protocol for a patient presenting with streptococcal pharyngitis?
1. Perform a rapid strep test
2. Throat culture
3. Consider testing for mononucleosis
What medications are prescribed for streptococcal pharyngitis?
Primarily antibiotics such as Azithromycin and/or penicillin.
What patient information should be provided to patients suffering from streptococcal pharyngitis?
1. Follow through with all antibiotics to avoid resistance
2. NSAIDs are effective for pain
3. Drinking warm liquids may help
4. Gargle with salt water several times daily
5. ice pops will likely help
__________ is an infection with the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) causing fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, fatigue, spleen enlargement and occasionally liver inflammation.
What are some exam findings suggestive of mononucleosis?
1. Sore throat
2. Painful lymph nodes
6. Myalgia (body aches)
What area might a patient report feeling pain/tenderness when mononucleosis is suspected?
Left Upper Quadrant due to splenomegaly
What is the standard treatment protocol for a patient presenting with mononucleosis?
1. Referral to MO
2. APAP for fever and myalgia
What patient information should be provided to patients suffering from mononucleosis?
1. Ensure adequate fluid intake
2. Suggest assistance for daily tasks
3. Avoid contact sports subsequent to enlarged spleen
What structure separates the upper airway from the lower airway?
***Lower airway consists of trachea, bronchi and lungs***
What are some symptoms suggestive of an upper airway infection?
1. Ear pain
2. Nasal congestion
4. Runny nose (rhinorrhea)
5. Sinus pain
6. Sore/scratchy throat
What are some exam findings associated with a patient suffering from an upper airway obstruction?
1. Swollen tympanic membranes
2. Runny nose
3. Nasal congestion
4. Mild conjunctivitis
5. Sinus tenderness
What is the standard treatment protocol for a patient presenting with an upper airway infection?
3. APAP/ibuprofen for fever
4. Eye drops