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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (43)
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1

what are local anaesthetics used for

to reduce awareness of pain

2

how do local anaesthetics work

by blocking ion channels, preventing propagation of AP

3

give examples of antibiotics used in dentistry

amoxycillin

4

give examples of anti-virals

aciclovir

5

give examples of anti fungals

topical - nystatin systemic - fluconazole

6

how do anti-inflammatories work

by inhibiting arachidonic acid binding to either COX 1 or 2, prevents prostaglandin production

7

what are common side effects with NSAID

increased risk of bleeding, increased gastric ulcer production, exacerbate asthma

8

what causes the side effects caused by NSAID

inhibiting COX 1 or 2 results in blocking thromboxane production, prevents platelet aggregation - more prone to bleeding

9

what drug interacts with aspirin and ibruprofen

warfarin

10

what is the difference between aspirin and ibruprofen

aspirin has much more severe side effects, aspirin blocks COX 1, ibruprofen blocks COX 2

11

what is diclofenac

an NSAID that can only be prescribed with prescription

12

what is a positive of using aspirin

if people have heart problems, blood is thinner

13

how do corticosteroids work

inhibits capillary permeability, bradykinin formation and white blood cell migration, suppresses inflammation but doesnt target the cause

14

give examples of corticosteroids

beclomethasone - inhaler, prednisolone - oral, hydrocortisone - topical

15

what are the side effects of corticosteroids

high blood pressure, diabetes, weight gain, adrenal suppression, gastric ulceration

16

what drugs are used in sedation

nitrous oxide and diazepan

17

how is nitrous oxide administered

inhaled as a gas but should be avoided in pregnancy - interacts with folic acid

18

name 3 ways in which a drug can exert its effect on the body

activating an ion channel, activating/inhibiting an enzyme, coupled to G-protein receptors

19

what is the result of activating a g protein

this activates an enzyme which results in production of a second messenger, acts within the cell to bring about change e.g. protein production

20

give an example of a drug altering ion channels

local anaesthetic blocks ion channels to prevent AP conduction

21

give an example of a drug that alters enzyme activity

aspirin, inhibits COX 1 preventing arachiodonic acid from binding

22

what effects a drugs efficacy

affinity and occupancy

23

when might a drugs affinity for a receptor be lowered

if the drug is only a partial agonist, doesnt fit as well into the binding site so wont work as well

24

what can be done to increase the efficacy of partial agonists

increase the concentration, increases occupancy, however, doesnt work for all drugs

25

name different types of antagonists and give explanations

reversible - unbinds to the receptor, leaving it unchanged
irreversible - permanent change to receptor
competitive and non-competitive - depends on whereabouts it exerts it's effect

26

what are the phases of drug action

absorption, clinical effect, metabolism, excretion

27

what are the routes of administration for drugs

oral, subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular

28

what are the advantages of oral administration

socially acceptable

29

what are the disadvantages of oral administration

slow onset, variable absorption, unpredictable bioavailability, must have functioning GI tract and liver, drug must be lipophillic (unionised) to get through the membrane but then active part is ionised

30

describe first pass metabolism

oral drugs go through the GI tract and into hepatic portal vein into the liver before reaching the systemic circulation. therefore, before they reach the area they are targeting, a proportion of the drug is already lost. makes us unsure of how much drug is actually reaching the desired area and also a bigger dose is required