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Flashcards in pharm hw 51-75 Deck (25)
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1

In contrast to epinephrine, norepinephrine:
Choose one answer.
A. specifically targets beta-1 receptors.
B. has minimal effect on blood pressure.
C. primarily stimulates alpha receptors.
D. stimulates beta-1 and beta-2 receptors.

c

2

In critical care settings, mannitol is used to:
Choose one answer.
A. manage hypothermia.
B. lower the blood pressure.
C. reduce cerebral edema.
D. treat anaphylaxis.

c

3

In general, alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists:
Choose one answer.
A. decrease the heart rate.
B. lower the blood pressure.
C. are used for hypotension.
D. increase vascular resistance.

b

4

In order to cause a negative inotropic effect on the heart, you would have to administer a:
Choose one answer.
A. beta-1 adrenergic antagonist.
B. alpha-2 adrenergic agonist.
C. beta-2 adrenergic agonist.
D. alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist.

a

5

In order to relieve the bronchospasm associated with an acute asthma attack, the paramedic would give a:
Choose one answer.
A. alpha-1 agonist.
B. beta-2 agonist.
C. beta-1 agonist.
D. alpha-2 agonist.

b

6

In up to one third of all patients, morphine sulfate causes:
Choose one answer.
A. nausea and vomiting.
B. severe hypotension.
C. complete heart block.
D. a reflex tachycardia.

a

7

In which of the following situations would the paramedic MOST likely administer a drug via the rectal route?
Choose one answer.
A. Seizure termination
B. Acute renal failure
C. Respiratory failure
D. Anaphylactic shock

a

8

IO infusion rates are comparable to IV infusion rates:
Choose one answer.
A. when a pressure bag or mechanical infusion device is used.
B. only when the extremity with the IO needle inserted is elevated.
C. if the patient's systolic blood pressure is at least 100 mm Hg.
D. only if the IO needle is inserted in the proximal tibia.

a

9

Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) causes bronchodilation by:
Choose one answer.
A. antagonizing muscarinic receptors.
B. agonizing nicotinic receptors.
C. agonizing beta-2 receptors.
D. antagonizing beta-2 receptors.

a

10

IV calcium is routinely used to treat:
Choose one answer.
A. cardiopulmonary arrest.
B. magnesium sulfate toxicity.
C. sulfuric acid exposure.
D. beta-blocker overdose.

b

11

Lidocaine is an antidysrhythmic that works by:
Choose one answer.
A. antagonizing beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium.
B. blocking sodium channels in the Purkinje fibers and ventricle.
C. displacing calcium at certain receptor sites in the myocardium.
D. increasing the duration of phases 1, 2, and 3 of the cardiac cycle.

b

12

Lipid-soluble medications require higher weight-based doses in elderly patients because:
Choose one answer.
A. there are fewer barriers to absorption in elderly patients.
B. elderly patients have a much faster basil metabolic rate.
C. elderly patients have a higher body fat percentage and fat distribution.
D. elderly patients have a higher overall percentage of body water.

c

13

Massive doses of atropine may be required when:
Choose one answer.
A. a patient strains to defecate and stimulates muscarinic-2 receptors.
B. acetylcholine increases dramatically due to acetylcholinesterase inhibition.
C. severe bradycardia is the result of a block in the cardiac conduction system.
D. a patient's heart rate significantly increases and lowers the cardiac output.

b

14

Medication X is given to increase the effects of medication Y, which provides more relief than if medication Y were given alone. This is an example of:
Choose one answer.
A. synergism.
B. summation.
C. potentiation.
D. antagonism.

c

15

Medications administered by the ___________ route, by definition, have 100% bioavailability.
Choose one answer.
A. sublingual
B. intramuscular
C. endotracheal
D. intravenous

d

16

Medications commonly administered via a nebulizer include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Choose one answer.
A. albuterol.
B. lidocaine.
C. Xopenex.
D. Racemic epinephrine.

b

17

Medications that are manufactured synthetically:
Choose one answer.
A. do not use animal, mineral, or vegetable sources.
B. include insulin, digitalis, and thyroid medications.
C. are derived from certain plants and animal organs.
D. include calcium, iron, magnesium, and other minerals.

a

18

Metoprolol has the brand name _____________, which may be a subtle reference to lowering the blood pressure.
Choose one answer.
A. Cordarone
B. Lopressor
C. Vasotec
D. Norpramin

b

19

Most medication biotransformation occurs in the:
Choose one answer.
A. liver.
B. kidneys.
C. lungs.
D. GI tract.

a

20

Narcotic analgesics relieve pain by:
Choose one answer.
A. blocking opioid receptors.
B. suppressing adrenergic function.
C. stimulating opioid receptors.
D. blocking neuromuscular activity.

c

21

Neuromuscular blocking agents achieve chemical paralysis by:
Choose one answer.
A. agonizing muscarinic receptor sites and increasing acetylcholine production.
B. binding to nicotinic receptor sites on muscle cells and antagonizing acetylcholine.
C. inhibiting cerebellar activity, thereby decreasing voluntary muscle movement.
D. blocking the action of the sodium-potassium pump, causing muscle paralysis.

b

22

Newer medications are designed to target only specific receptor sites on certain cells in an attempt to:
Choose one answer.
A. treat more than one condition.
B. minimize the adverse effects.
C. reduce their therapeutic effect.
D. eliminate all side effects.

b

23

Patients taking ACE inhibitor medications commonly have:
Choose one answer.
A. immunosuppression.
B. thin and fragile skin.
C. a chronic, dry cough.
D. a reduced platelet count.

c

24

Patients who are genetically predisposed to an immune-mediated medication response:
Choose one answer.
A. typically have a history of more than one autoimmune disorder.
B. had an initial exposure and sensitization to a particular antigen.
C. should be given an antihistamine before receiving the medication.
D. will experience a minor reaction that is generally limited to hives.

b

25

Patients who receive opioid substances on a long-term basis:
Choose one answer.
A. are less likely to develop cross-tolerance than a non-opioid user.
B. often need higher doses of an opioid medication for pain relief.
C. are less likely to experience severe nervous system depression.
D. typically respond to lower doses of an opioid medication.

b