Pharm 2 Exam 1 Drug List Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharm 2 Exam 1 Drug List Deck (28)
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1

Benzocaine

local anesthetic
short acting ester type LA
topical

2

Procaine

local anesthetic
short acting ester type LA for infiltration, epidural, spinal

3

Cocaine

local anesthetic
short acting ester type LA for topical use in throat and nose procedures
SE: vasoconstriction and tachycardia

4

Lidocaine

local anesthetic
longer acting amide LA for infiltration, Bier block, peripheral, epidural, spinal

5

Ropivacaine

local anesthetic
longer acting amide LA for peripheral

6

Epinephrine

adjunct w/ local anesthetic
Reduces systemic absorption of LA by vasoconstriction

7

Clonidine

adjunct w/ local anesthetic for epidural and spinal administration to further reduce pain transmission

8

Diazepam

adjunct w/ local anesthetic
Tx convulsions d/t systemic absorption of LA into CNS

9

Tetrodotoxin

extracellular Na channel blocker (binds in all states) vs local anesthetic (use dependent blockade)

10

Esters

Single "i"
cocaine, procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine
short T1/2
SE: allergy d/t PABA
met. by plasma and liver psuedocholinesterases

11

Amides

Double "i"
lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, etidocaine, prilocaine, ropivacaine
longer T1/2
met. in liver by p450

12

Nitrous Oxide

1 MAC=105%. Blood:gas 0.47, very insoluble in blood, rapid induction and emergence. Analgesic, 70-80% in O2 used.
GOOD: analgesia b4 anesthesia, little toxicity, rapid induction/recovery
BAD: weak agent, hypoxia may occur, closed air spaces may expand
Avoid in pt w. pneumothorax, obstructed middle ear, air embolus, obstructed bowel loop, intraocular air bubble, intracranial air
Anesthesia Lecture

13

Enflurane

Blood:gas 1.8=relatively high, induction slow
BAD: CV depression d/t dec in contractility, seizures, uterine muscle relaxant
Anesthesia Lecture

14

Isoflurane

MC used inhalation anesthetic in US
1 MAC=1.4%, Blood:gas 1.4=relatively low, somewhat fast induction
GOOD: CO maintained, systemic vessels dilate causing sm dec in BP, arrhythmias uncommon, potent coronary vasodilator
BAD: more pungent than halothane, progressive respiratory depression
Anesthesia Lecture

15

Sevoflurane

Blood:gas .69= relatively low, fast induction
GOOD: can be used for outpt anesthesia b/c of its rapid recovery profile
BAD: some reports of toxicity
Anesthesia Lecture

16

Dusflurane

Blood:gad 0.42, low, very fast induction. Very fast emergence, usu does not exceed 5-10 min.
GOOD: useful for outpt surgery d/t rapid onset and recovery. Not very fat soluble.
BAD: irritating to airway can cause coughing, salivation, bronchospasm. Low volatility=requires use of specially heated vaporizer. May evoke tachycardia.
Anesthesia Lecture

17

Methoxyflurane

Blood:gas 12, highly soluble in rubber so special equipment needed, not used much anymore.
GOOD: very potent
BAD: extensive metabolism, may produce renal failure and nephrotoxicity.
Anesthesia Lecture

18

Halothane

Blood:gas 2.3=relatively high, induction slow
soluble in fat
BAD: halothane hepatitis: immune response evoking hepatic necrosis, fever, nausea, rash, vomiting
Anesthesia Lecture

19

Barbiturates (sodium thiopental)

IV
GOOD: little post-anesthetic excitement or vomiting, water soluble
BAD: respiratory and CV depression, no antagonist, slow recovery, no analgesia
Anesthesia Lecture

20

Propofol

IV
GOOD: rapid metabolism and recovery, little accumulation, milk of amnesia as it produces a hypnotic and forgetful rest
BAD: not water soluble, no antagonist, no analgesia, cardiorespiratory depression, can elicit pain on initial injection.
Anesthesia Lecture

21

Etomidate

IV
GOOD: ANTAGONIST available, anterograde amnesia, CV stability=is primarily used for pt at risk of hypotension.
BAD: accumulates=slow recovery, no analgesia, pain on injection
Anesthesia Lecture

22

Ketamine

IV
GOOD: analgesia, NO resp depression=may inc BP, hypnotic state=dissociative anesthesia
BAD: inc musc tone and incidence of involuntary movements, hallucinations, adverse effects are less common in kids
Anesthesia Lecture

23

Midazolam, diazepam

Benzodiazepines
Anesthesia Lecture

24

Diphenhydramine

Antihistamines
Anesthesia Lecture

25

Ondansetrone

Antiemetics
Anesthesia Lecture

26

Fentanyl and Morphine

Opioids
Anesthesia Lecture

27

Scopolamine, Atropine

Antimuscarinincs
Anesthesia Lecture

28

Pancuronium

Muscle relaxants
Anesthesia Lecture