Flashcards in Peripheral Vascular Disease Deck (48)
What does the arterial system do?
carries oxygenated blood to the capillaries of the body organs
What are the different layers of an artery? Which one provides the strength?
tunica intima (endothelium, CT, basement membrane)
tunica media (smooth muscle)
tunica adventitia (elastic and collagenous fibers)
Media provides the strength
How do the arteries work?
Where is BP the greatest?
What happens in smaller arterioles and capillaries?
elastic fibers allow expansion during systolic phase (cxn)
recoil and drive blood through during diastolic
-BP is greatest in muscular small arteries
-BP decreases and blood flow slows to allow gas and nutrient exchange
What does the venous system do?
returns deoxygenated blood from tissue back to the heart (& moves waste products)
What are the different layers of a vein?
3 tunics, but less distinct and cannot contract
valves are formed by the inner layer of the vessel wall
How do veins work?
Veins formed by the inner layer of the vessel wall ensure one-way blood flow
Blood moves in veins via skeletal muscle pump and breathing (contraction of diaphragm insreases pressure in the abdomen and pressure differences force blood --> thoracic cavity --> heart)
What does the lymphatic system do?
transports interstitial fluid back to blood
transports absorbed fat from small intestine
has lymphocytes that provide immunological defense
What are the different layers of lymph pathways?
3 layers similar to veins, with close-ended tubes
valves formed by inner layer to prevent backflow
How is lymph moved throughout the body?
peristaltic motion and valvular closure
What are the 4 main categories of peripheral vascular disease?
- Arterial Occlusive
- Vasomotor Disorder / Vasospastic Disease
What are some types of arterial occlusive PVD?
What is a clot that commonly has a cardiac origin secondary to stasis of flow, and can migrate to peripheral arterial vessels and block it?
Which clot is less common and usually formed in conjunction with an atherosclerotic lesion... platelets gather behind lesion and form it... severity depends on size?
What are the symptoms of Thrombus/Emboli?
Pain, Pallor, Paralysis, Parasthesia, and Pulselessness
What is the hardening of arterial walls?
What is a form of arteriosclerosis that often involves plaque deposits on the endothelial lining?
What is a form of atherosclerosis that is manifested peripherally, usually in the lower extremities?
What is a specific arterial disease with tissue ischemia in young men who smoke?
thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease)
What will patients complain of subjectively with arterial occlusive disease?
cramping w/ walking
rest pain relieved by dependency
wounds w/o a history of trauma
What will patients display objectively with arterial occlusive disease?
trophic changes (loss of hair, abnormal cells, dry/cool skin)
What are some types of inflammatory disease?
What is inflammation of the vessel wall resulting from immune complex deposition or cell-mediated immune reactions directed against the vessel wall
What is a febrile inflammatory disease in children?
What are some types of vasomotor/vasospastic conditions?
Primary and secondary Raynaud's
What is temporary vasospasm in arterioles causing cyanosis, most often occurring in the fingers and caused by cold temperatures or strong emotions?
Primary Raynaud's Disease
What is it called when vasospasm in arterioles causing cyanosis, most often occurring in the fingers and caused by cold temperatures or strong emotions occurs secondary to another disease like Buerger's or connective tissue diseases?
Secondary Raynaud's Disease
What are some types of venous disease?
deep vein thrombosis
chronic venous insufficiency
What are abnormally dilated veins resulting from intrinsic vessel wall weakness and chronic valvular insufficiency?
Where and in whom do varicose veins most frequently occur?
in lower extremity, women (3:1)