Flashcards in Perinial trauma and episiotomy Deck (12)
What is an anterior perinial trauma?
Any Injury to the labia, anterior vagina, urethra, or clitoris. (Chris kettle, 2010, Myles)
What is posterior perineal trauma?
Any Injury to the posterior vaginal wall, perineal muscles, or anal sphincters (external and internal ) and may include disruption of the rectal mucosa.
What is the prevalence of perineal trauma?
Over 85% of women who have vaginal birth will sustain some form of perineal trauma.
Name four risk factors that can be associated with and reference?
Size of baby
Mode of delivery
Malpresentatioon and malposition of fetus
(Groutz et al. 2011)
how would you prepare a woman, antenatally to avoid perineal trauma during birth.
encourage perineal massage
encourage pelvic floor exercise, that will stretch the pelvic floor to prevent trauma or episiotomy
What the NICE 2014 definition of a first degree tear?
first degree – injury to skin only
What the NICE 2014 definition of a second degree tear?
second degree – injury to the perineal muscles but not the anal sphincter
What the NICE 2014 definition of a third (A,B,C) degree tear?
third degree – injury to the perineum involving the anal sphincter complex:
3a – less than 50% of external anal sphincter thickness torn
3b – more than 50% of external anal sphincter thickness torn
3c – internal anal sphincter torn.
What the NICE 2014 definition of a fourth degree tear?
fourth degree – injury to the perineum involving the anal sphincter complex (external and internal anal sphincter) and anal epithelium.
What is the definition of an episiotomy?
A surgical incision of the perineum made to increase the diameter of the vulval out let during birth (Chris Kettle, 2010 mayes)
Name the reasons as to why an episiotomy would occur?
Rigid perineum causing a delay in second stage
reduce prolonged maternal pushing, if she was to have a severe hypertensive or cardiac disease.
prevent severe perinieal trauma during instrumental delivery or if baby is OP