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Flashcards in Peds Deck (122)
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1

How long is a neonatal period

1-28 days

2

how long is infancy

29 days to 1 year

3

What does a newborns skin feel like?

soft, smooth and thin

4

for a newborn how will their skin change in the first 10 minutes after birth?

cyanosis -> pink

5

Define Acrocyanosis

blue cast to hands an feet when exposed to cold

6

What are skin signs of congenital heart disease?

if acrocyanosis does not disappear after 8 hours or with warming.
if pt has central cyanosis (tongue, oral mucosa)

7

What is the typical timeline for jaundice in a newborn?

appears 2-3 days after birth and peaks day 5, resolves about 1 week

Reason- the baby's liver is not fully developed yet

8

If see jaundice in <24hrs what do you suspect?

what if jaundice lasts >2-3 weeks?

<24 hrs suspect hemolytic disease

>2-3 weeks suspect liver disease

9

Describe erythema toxicum


appears 2-3 days after birth, red macules with central pinpoint vesicles scattered over body – disappears within a wk

COMMON (appears first few weeks and resolve few weeks later)

10

Pustular melanosis

small vesiculopustules over brown base – may last several mos, more common in black infants

COMMON (appears first few weeks and resolve few weeks later)

11

Milia

pinhead-sized smooth white raised area without erythema on nose, chin, forehead – due to retention of sebum in openings of sebaceous glands

COMMON (appears first few weeks and resolve few weeks later)

12

How do you examine for jaundice in a baby?

stretch the skin apart and push to blanch the skin.

If not jaundice then have white blanching , if jaundice then have yellowish blanching

13

How can you tx jaundice?

Phototherapy. Can determine if pt needs by using a calculator online

14

How big is the anterior fontanelle and when does it close?

4-6cm at birth, closes in 4-26 mos

15

How big is the posterior fontanelle and when does it close?

fontanelle 1-2cm at birth, closes in 2 mos.

16

What does fullness or bulging of fontanelles indicate?

suspect ↑ intracranial pressure (e.g. due to CNS infection)

17

What does depression of fontanelles indicate?

dehydration

18

Up to what age should you still primarily depend on the parent to give a hx?

12 y.o

can begin to give hx around 4 but still need clarification from parent

19

At what age can you begin to ask pt's parent or caregiver to leave the room FOR A PORTION of the visit?

10-11 yo

20

What maneuvers do you do first in the PE and last?

non disturbing first & ones that need cooperation (heart lungs neuro)

distressing/painful last (ear throat abd)

21

When can you begin head to toe exams?

5 yo, but still painful areas last

22

What is the overall goal of peds exam?

-Promoting health
-Detecting disease & abuse
-counsel to prevent injury or future health problems

23

What is important info for your hx section?

-Prenatal hx (preg complications, infection, smoke, tobacco)
-birth hx (vag or C-section, premature etc)
-development hx so far
-preventitive care (vaccination)

24

What does no eye contact between caregiver and child possibly indicate?

neglect

25

What is considered tachypnea in a peds pt older than 1 yo?

>40 breaths/minute

26

How can you take a childs pulse?

auscultation, or palpation of heart, brachial or radial pulse

27

What do you do if your peds pt is in sinus arrhythmia?

NOTHING. it is common in peds. go with insp and expiratory

28

How do you count peds respirations?

rise and fall of abd

29

What is considered respiratory effort in a peds pt?

-retractions (ribs, supraclavicular notch)
-contraction of SCM
-flaring of nostrils
-paradoxical breathing
-stridor
-tachypnea

30

When do you begin routine measurement of BP?

3 yo