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Flashcards in Pediatric Depression and Suicide Deck (36)
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Risk factors for depression

1. Personal or family history of depression
2. Personal or family history of Bipolar disorder
3. Suicide related behavior
4. Substance abuse
5. Other psychiatric illnesses
6. Significant psychosocial stressors (family crisis, abuse, neglect, trauma)


Screen for depression if symptoms warrant it and yearly
1. Screening tools? 4
2. Personal interview? 1

1. Screening tools
-GAPS (Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services)
-Beck Depression Inventory
-Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale
-SDQ (Strengths and difficulties questionnaire)

2. Personal interview


HEADSS based interview questions

H (home)

E (education, employment)

A (activities)

D (drugs)

S (sexuality)

S (suicide/depression)


Criteria for diagnosis of depression
(DSM-IV-TR and DSM 5)

Absolute requirements? 2

Needs to include how many of the following symtpoms and what are they?

Symptoms cannot be due to what? 3

1. A major depressive episode in children and adolescents typically includes at least 5 of the following symptoms during the same 2-week period
2. At least one of the symptoms needs to be depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure

1. Depressed (or irritable) mood
2. Diminished interest or loss of pleasure in almost all activities
3. Sleep disturbance
4. Weight change, appetite disturbance, or failure to achieve expected weight gain
5. Decreased concentration or indecisiveness
6. Suicidal ideation or thoughts of death
7. Psychomotor agitation or retardation
8 . Fatigue or loss of energy
9. Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt

1. Symptoms are not due to a medical condition or other psychiatric disorder (bipolar)
2. Symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance
3. Symptoms are not better accounted for by bereavement beyond 2 months


Depressive symptoms in children and pre-pubertal youth

1. Somatic complaints
2. Psychomotor agitation
3. Mood-congruent hallucinations
4. School refusal
5. Phobias/separation anxiety/increase in worrying


Depressive symptoms in adolescents and post-pubertal youth

1. Low self esteem, apathy, boredom
2. Substance use
3. Change in weight, sleep or grades
4. Psychomotor depression/hypersomnia
5. Aggression/antisocial behavior
6. Social withdrawal


Discuss the difference between depressive symptoms in younger children and in teens?

Younger children may present with more somatic symptoms and more likely to have psychomotor agitation

Teens may be more likely to present with social withdrawal, substance use and psychomotor depression


Signs and symptoms of major depression

S Sleep disturbance

I Interests (decreased for usual activities)

G Guilt (excessive or inappropriate)

E Energy (decreased)

C Concentration problems

A Appetite change

P Pleasure (decreased)

S Suicidal thoughts or actions


What is the goal of interviewing the caregivers of the pediatric depression pt as well?

Goal is to establish how much support the patient has and to assess for safety (suicidal behaviors)


Medical evaluation to rule out other etiologies

1. Infection (Mononucleosis)
2. Medication side effects
3. Endocrine disorder (Thyroid disorder)
4. Tumor
5. Neurologic disorder
6. Miscellaneous (anemia)


Differential diagnosis

1. Normal moodiness of teens
2. Major depressive disorder
3. Substance induced mood disorder
4. Adjustment disorder
5. Anxiety disorder
7. Bipolar disorder
8. Eating disorder
9. Conduct disorder


Suicidal behaviors in children and teens include:


1. Expressing self destructive thoughts
2. Drawing morbid or death-related pictures
3. Using death as a theme during play in young children
4. Listening to music that centers around death
5. Playing video games that have a self-destructive theme
6. Reading books or other publications that focus on death
7. Watching TV programs that center around death
8. Visiting internet sites that contain death related content
9. Giving away possessions


Teens at high risk for suicide


2. + Family history of a first degree relative who committed suicide *


What does SAD PERSONS mean?

(which ones are the critical high features 5)

S (sex) females attempt more, males* complete more

A (age) over 16*

D (depression) and comorbid conduct disorder/impulsive/aggression/anxiety

P (previous attempts)*

E (ETOH) or other substance abuse (SA)

R (rational thinking lost) psychotic or SA

S (social supports lacking)*

O (organized plan) **

N (no significant other)

S (sickness or stressors)


Treatment for depression

1. Initial management of depression includes patient and caregiver education

2. Develop a treatment plan with patient and family

3. Establish relevant links with mental health resources in the community

4. Safety plan


Step 1: Initial management

1. Educate that depression is often recurrent and what treatment options are available

2. Parental reaction may include sadness, anger or denial

3. Confidentially – make it clear that the content of the visits are confidential unless there is evidence of imminent harm to self or others


Step 2: Develop treatment plan

1. Set specific treatment goals in key areas of functioning
-Home, peer and school settings
-Written goals (exercise, self care, homework, etc.)

2. Determine treatment plan based on severity of symptoms


What are some options for pedatric depression treatment? 3

Determine treatment plan based on severity of symptoms
1. Cognitive behavioral therapy,
2. interpersonal psychotherapy,
3. SSRIs


Step 3: Community resources

What does this step include?

Refer to appropriate support groups which may be available in the community


Step 4: Safety plan

What does this include?

All management must include a safety plan

This is a specific set of instructions for the patient to help recognize their symptoms and what they will do if they feel unsafe


Mild depressive symptoms
Treatment plan?

1. May choose active monitoring for a short time
2. Frequent visits
3. Prescribe regular exercise or leisure activities
4. Recommend peer support group
5. Review self management goals
6. Provide education


1. Cognitive behavior therapy is based on what?
2. Goal of treatment?

1. Based on the principle that one’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors affect one another.

2. Goal of treatment is to modify the negative thoughts and behaviors.


1. Interpersonal Psychotherapy is based on what?
2. Goal of treatment?

1. Based on the principle that depression occurs in an interpersonal context

2. Goal of treatment is to address the interpersonal problems that may be contributing to or resulting from the depression


Can start by depression therapy management discussing what things with the patient?

1. Assessing prior treatment success
2. Family history of successful antidepressant use
3. Discussion of duration of treatment (6 mo to 1 year after cessation of symptoms)
4. Reviewing safety data of medication
5. Reviewing side effects


Medical treatment with SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)

(state the ages that each med is approved for)

1. Fluoxetine (Prozac)
(FDA approved ages 8 and up for depression and OCD)

2. Escitalopram (Lexapro)
(FDA approved ages 12 and up for depression)


Whats reccommended for the first SSRI?

Fluoxetine (Prozac)


Fluoxetine (Prozac)
1. Dose?
2. Taper how?
3. Effective dose at what?
4. Max dose?

1. 10mg once daily
2. Taper up by 10 mg increments every 1-2 weeks
Example: Take ½ of a 20mg tab for 2 weeks then increase to a whole tab
3. Effective dose 20 mg
4. Max dose 60 mg


Prozac the pro’s

1. Long half life so less withdrawal symptoms if missed dosing

2. Multiple successful medication trials in adolescents


SSRI FDA approved for 12 and older first line?

Escitalopram (Lexapro)


Escitalopram (Lexapro)
1. Start the dose at?
2. Effective dose at?
3. Max dose at?

1. Starting dose 5 mg daily
2. Effective dose 10-20 mg
3. Maximum dose 20 mg