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Global Politics III & IV > Peace & Violence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Peace & Violence Deck (24)
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1

According to Johan Galtung, what is violence?

Violence is present when human beings are being influenced so that their actual somatic & mental realizations are below their potential realizations

2

Which are the two expressions of violence?

Physical and psychological

3

Which are the two types of violence?

Direct and structural

4

What is direct violence?

There is a subject who perpetrates the violence

5

What is structural violence?

There is no subject who perpetrates violence

6

Why is inequality at the core of structural violence?

-Uneven distribution of resources
-Uneven distribution of power over allocation
-Unequal distribution of benefits of the status quo

7

What is cultural violence?

Those aspects of culture - the symbolic sphere of our existence - that can be used to justify or legitimize direct or structural violence

8

Legitimizing violence consists of which two aspects?

-Altering the morality of reality
-Making reality opaque

9

According to Johan Galtung, what is peace?

The absence of violence

10

What is negative peace?

The absence of direct violence

11

What is positive peace?

The absence of structural violence

12

What is conflict?

The set of circumstances in which conflict actors have (or perceive that they have) mutually incompatible goals or intentions

13

Which are some conflict actors?

-Either individuals or collectives
-Internal cohesion
-Defined structure of preferences
-Communicated to each other

14

Which are the variations of territorial conflict?

-Territory & sovereignty
-Territory & nationalism
-Territory & economic value

15

Within territorial conflict, what is secession?

A province or region undertakes efforts to secede from an existing state

16

Within territorial conflict, what is interstate conflict?

Two (or more) states dispute control of defined territories

17

Which are other two possible conflicts within territorial conflict?

-Territorial waters
-Airspace

18

What does economic conflict mainly consist on?

Lateral pressure (from growth to expansionism) & strategic materials

19

What is an ethnic identity?

Category in which eligibility for membership is determined by attributes associated with, or believed to be associated with, descent

20

Where does ethnic conflict surge from?

From systematic rivalries between ethnic groups

21

Which are some possible causes for ethnic conflict?

In-group vs. out-group
-Ethnocentrism
-Prejudice
-Dehumanization
-Genocide
Others
-History
-Political use of animosity
-Lack of knowledge & contact
-Propaganda

22

Which are some possible solutions for ethnic conflicts?

-Partition
-Victory
-Power-sharing
-State-building
-Identity reconstruction

23

What is ideological conflict?

Incompatible systems of thought

24

What does religious conflict argue?

Religions and culture as a core of communities value systems