Flashcards in Peace & Violence Deck (24)
According to Johan Galtung, what is violence?
Violence is present when human beings are being influenced so that their actual somatic & mental realizations are below their potential realizations
Which are the two expressions of violence?
Physical and psychological
Which are the two types of violence?
Direct and structural
What is direct violence?
There is a subject who perpetrates the violence
What is structural violence?
There is no subject who perpetrates violence
Why is inequality at the core of structural violence?
-Uneven distribution of resources
-Uneven distribution of power over allocation
-Unequal distribution of benefits of the status quo
What is cultural violence?
Those aspects of culture - the symbolic sphere of our existence - that can be used to justify or legitimize direct or structural violence
Legitimizing violence consists of which two aspects?
-Altering the morality of reality
-Making reality opaque
According to Johan Galtung, what is peace?
The absence of violence
What is negative peace?
The absence of direct violence
What is positive peace?
The absence of structural violence
What is conflict?
The set of circumstances in which conflict actors have (or perceive that they have) mutually incompatible goals or intentions
Which are some conflict actors?
-Either individuals or collectives
-Defined structure of preferences
-Communicated to each other
Which are the variations of territorial conflict?
-Territory & sovereignty
-Territory & nationalism
-Territory & economic value
Within territorial conflict, what is secession?
A province or region undertakes efforts to secede from an existing state
Within territorial conflict, what is interstate conflict?
Two (or more) states dispute control of defined territories
Which are other two possible conflicts within territorial conflict?
What does economic conflict mainly consist on?
Lateral pressure (from growth to expansionism) & strategic materials
What is an ethnic identity?
Category in which eligibility for membership is determined by attributes associated with, or believed to be associated with, descent
Where does ethnic conflict surge from?
From systematic rivalries between ethnic groups
Which are some possible causes for ethnic conflict?
In-group vs. out-group
-Political use of animosity
-Lack of knowledge & contact
Which are some possible solutions for ethnic conflicts?
What is ideological conflict?
Incompatible systems of thought