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Flashcards in Part 2 Deck (45)
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What is data triangulation?

Using multiple sources of data to study one thing can yield a more comprehensive understanding.


What are the strengths and weaknesses of field research?

Strengths: Higher on validity than survey research, the depth of understanding generated surpasses that obtained through survey data, the flexibility to move interview in a new direction. Weakness: Lower on reliability than survey research-subjective interpretations are being made by researchers, often difficult to obtain probability samples, difficult to reach conclusions about large populations


What is ethnography?

A report on social life that focuses on detailed and accurate description rather than explanation.


What are the 3 types of agency records often used in research? What are the key characteristics of each?

Published Statistics, Non Public Agency Records, and Hybrid Sources of Data. Published Statistics: Easily accessible by the public, Most often presented in summary (aggregate) form- cant be used to analyze individual-level data. Non Public Agency Records: Many require that you have a working relationship with someone who has access to the data, Researchers may be guaranteed access to data through a slate or federal grant project. Hybrid sources of data: potential barrier agency staff cooperation.


What is a ‘hybrid’ data source, as it relates to agency records?

Small tweaks in usual agency data collection procedures.


What are the 4 reliability/validity issues associated with agency records?

1) The social production of data, 2) Agency data is not designed for research purposes, 3) Agencies track individuals; research track patterns, and 4) Errors increase with volume.


What is content analysis?

The systematic study of messages and the meaning these messages convey.


What is the difference between manifest content and latent content?

Manifest content: the visible surface content-facts, claims, figures, data. Latent content: the underlying meaning the message might convey.


What are two ways to improve the reliability of data when using content analysis?

Operationalization and Measurement decisions.


What is secondary data analysis?

Using data previously collected by other researchers who had other research agencies in mind.


What is the ICPSR? The NACJD?

International Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR): Hosts thousands of datasets. National Archive of Criminal Justice Data: A special collection within the interuniversity Consortium of Political and Social Research that includes data series of special interest to criminal justice researchers and practitioners.


Why is secondary data analysis so common?

Conducting original research is expensive and time consuming and many survey instruments include questions that can be used for a variety of purposes.


According to the book, what are the major advantages and disadvantages of using secondary data for research?

Advantages: Cheaper and faster than collecting original data, and, depending on who did the original study, you may benefit from the work of topflight professionals and esteemed academics. Disadvantages: When one researcher collects data for one particular purpose, you have no assurance that those data will be appropriate to your research interests.


What is a meta-analysis?

Combining the results of several studies (research articles) that address a set of related research hypothesis.


What is the difference between basic research and applied research?

Basic research: studying an issue/topic WITHOUUT a manipulation or intervention. Applied Research: Studying an issue/topic BY manipulating/ intervening.


What is Evaluation Research?

A type of applied research done to evaluate the impact of a policy, program, intervention, or law.


What are the different parts of the policy process (see book)?

1) Policy demands, support, Opposition. 2) Policy Agenda. 3) Policy Outputs. 4) Policy Impacts


What is a process evaluation? Impact Assessment? Evaluability Assessment?

Process Evaluation: An evaluation of whether the program/policy/experiment was implemented as it was intended. Impact Assessment: A concluding step in evaluation where researchers assess whether a policy or program had the desired effect or outcome. Evaluability Assessment: A pre-evaluation step that helps researches to determine if the conditions needed to conduct an evaluation are present-is it feasible?


What are some of the major issues or difficulties in evaluation research?

1) Formulation of the problem and establishment of goals: formal statements are often very abstract-goals need to be measurable. 2) Effectively collaborating with stakeholders. 3) Measurement of the treatment and key outcomes: we must have empirical indicators of the IV and the DV(s).


What are stakeholders?

Persons or organizations with a direct interest in a program/policy being evaluated.


Why has evaluation research increased so much over the last few decades?

1) Increased federal requirements for programs funded through federal agencies. 2) Greater availability of research funds (NIJ, NSF, and OJJDP). 3) Heightened concern for the accountability of public policy and taxpayer expenditures.


What are some of the ways that researchers can ensure that experimentally designed research is carried out as it was intended?

(pp 382-384) **


What is problem analysis?

Using research to guide decisions concerning the choosing of alternatives actions to address a specific problem.


What is a cost-benefit analysis?

Assessing the relative value and expense of alternative actions/ politics.


What is scientific realism?

Similar interventions can have naturally different outcomes in different context.


How can the political context in which research is conducted influence evaluation research?

1) Stakeholders may view negative evaluations as threatening to their job/organizations. 2) Money – the private sector is in the business of prison management. 3) Some researchers have stakes in the outcome this requires external evaluation. 4) Political preferences can influence agendas by making funds available for some research but not other research.


What is problem-oriented policing?

An approach to policing that depends on analyzing patterns of incidents and conditions that police are expected to handle and then developing responses based on that analysis.


What is crime-mapping?

is used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns. It is a key component of crime analysis and the CompStat policing strategy.


What are the various ethical issues in research (6 were discussed in class)?

The principle of Doing No Harm, The principle of Voluntary Participation, Protecting the identity of Participants, Potential Deception of Participants, Reporting of Findings, Legal liabilities.


Whom must researchers protect from potential harm in the course of research?

Research Participants, Researchers, Third parties.