Parasitology Test 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Parasitology Test 1 Deck (126)
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1

Definition:

The study of parasites

Parasitology

2

Definition:

  • Lives at the expense of its host
  • gains nourishment from its host
  • lives in/on another organism

Parasite

3

What is symbiosis?

The relationship between 2 different species

4

When one benefits while the other is unaffected it is known as ____________.

Commensalism

5

Both organisms benefit is known as ____________

Mutualism

6

When one organism benefits at the expense of another it is known as ___________

Parasitism

7

What is an ectoparasite?

A parasite that lives on the outside of the host, such as in the hair or on the skin.

Known as an infestation

examples: Scavvies, lice, and mites

8

What is an endoparasite?

A parasite that lives within the body of the host.

Known for infection

9

This type of parasite can live independently of a host, known as the "free-living" stage, and becomes parasitic if ingested or enters through a wound.

Facultative parasite

10

A parasite that is unable to survive outside a host is known as _____________

An obligate parasite

11

What is a pseudoparasite?

An artifact mistaken for a parasite

ex. pollen or hair

12

What is a definitive host?

Harbors the adult and/or sexual stage

AKA final host

13

What is an intermediate host?

Harbors the larval or asexual stage of a parasite

14

What is an accidental/incidental host?

A parasite establishes itself in a host other than its natural host.

Normally the parasite lives in or on host other than humans

AKA "dead-end" host is no longer transmitted

15

Definition:

This is a living carrier that transmits a parasite

-arthropods

Vector

16

What is a reservoir?

A continuous source of infection

-An animal or area that harbors the infective parasite

17

An infected individual showing no signs of clinical manifestation but has the potential to infect others is known as being a ___________

Carrier

18

What is the greatest vehicle for most of transmission of parasites?

Food

19

Parasitic life cycle:

During this stage the parasite is capable of invading a definitive host

Infective stage

20

Parasitic life cycles:

During this stage a parasite can be identified by examining appropriate specimen from an infected host

Diagnostic stage

21

What is the difference between parasitic infection and parasitic disease?

Parasitic infection: infected host suffers very little damage and typically has no symptoms

Parasitic disease: host suffers pathologic changes and has various symptoms

22

What are some common symptoms of parasites? (9)

  • Diarrhea
  • fever
  • chills
  • abdominal pain and cramping
  • anemia
  • bowel obstruction
  • enlarged organs
  • skin lesions
  • flatulence

23

What is the pathogenesis of a parasite dependent on?

  • Number of parasites
  • Size of parasite
  • Tissue tropism
  • Specific mechanisms of tissue damage
  • Location and migration patterns
  • Patients immune system

24

What is a mechanical effect due to a parasite?

Obstruction of vessels or hollow viscera

25

True or False:

Parasites can invade or destroy host cells

True

26

True or False:

Parasites can cause an inflammatory reaction on their own or due to their byproducts

True

27

True or False:

Parasites compete for nutrient but do not cause vitamin deficiency

False- Parasites can cause vitamin deficiency which can in turn cause anemia

28

What is a physical barrier against parasites?

Intact skin

29

What is a chemical barrier against parasites?

Proper hand washing

30

What is natural resistance to parasite?

Genetic factors that may influence resistance