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Flashcards in Pancytopenia Deck (13)
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1

What is pancytopenia?

A deficiency in blood cells of all lineages (RBC, platelets, granulocytes)
Generally excludes lymphocytes

2

Pancytopenia is caused by reduced production or increased destruction of cells. True/False?

True

3

Fanconi'a anaemia is an inherited marrow failure syndrome. What is the defect?

Failure to repair DNA damage

4

List the main acquired primary bone marrow failures that result in pancytopenia

Aplastic anaemia
Myelodysplasia
Acute leukaemia

5

What happens in aplastic anaemia?

Autoimmune attack against haemopoietic stem cells

6

List the main causes of secondary bone marrow failure

Drugs (chemotherapy, chloramphenicol)
B12/folate deficiency
Infiltration
Infection
Storage diseases

7

What condition is notorious for causing increased destruction of blood cells?

Hypersplenism

8

List some causes of hypersplenism

Splenic congestion (heart failure, hypertension)
Rheumatoid arthritis
Felty's syndrome
Lymphoma

9

List clinical features of pancytopenia (think anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia)

Fatigue
Breathlessness
Infection
Bleeding
Purpura, rash

10

List investigations for pancytopenia

Family history
Blood count and film
Guided tests (LFTs, folate/B12, virology, antibodies)
Cytogenetics
Bone marrow aspirate

11

Outline supportive treatment for pancytopenia

Blood transfusion
Prophylactic antibiotics

12

Outline treatment for pancytopenia caused by primary marrow disorder

Chemotherapy
Bone marrow transplant
Immunosuppression

13

Outline treatment for pancytopenia caused by secondary marrow disorder

Stop precipitants
Treat infection
Replace B12/folate