Flashcards in Pain Management Deck (50)
What is pain?
- Sensory experience associated with tissue damage
- Emotional component in humans and animals
Forms of pain management? (3)
- Multi-modal analgesia
- Pain scoring methods (pain behaviour)
Why should pain be avoided? (Mention 4 things)
- Stress to patient
- Prolonged recovery
- Poor or delayed wound healing
- Impairs respiratory and cardiovascular function
- Reduced food intake
- Reduced mobility
- Our ethical responsibility!
Name 3 responses to pain
- Intra-operative pain
- Increased HR
- Increased RR
- Dilation of bronchi
- Adrenaline release
- Cardiac arrhythmias due to adrenaline release
- Dilation of blood vessels in skeletal muscle
- Constriction of blood vessels in gastrointestinal tract
What is acute pain associated with?
Injury / trauma
- may be post surgical
When does acute pain usually abate
- as healing occurs
What is acute pain?
Pain that does not usually outlast the initial painful stimulus
What is chronic pain?
Pain that does outlast the initial painful stimulus
British pain society: 'pain lasting longer than 12 weeks'
pain lasting longer than anticipated
What can chronic pain cause changes in
-Can cause changes in pain pathways of the central and peripheral nervous system
- Continued pain can lead to changes in the way the animal responds to painful stimulus
What is pre-emptive analgesia
Administration of analgesics prior to pain stimulation preventing neuron sensitisation
What are the three kinds of pain?
What is physiological pain?
Response that is proportionate to stimulus and pain goes when stimulus is removed
- 'Protective pain'
What is inflammatory pain?
- caused by surgery?
What is neuropathic pain?
Caused by direct damage to the nervous system
What is the physiology of pain
- Noxious (painful) stimulus associated with tissue damage and release of inflammatory mediators leading to the activation of pain receptors in nociceptors
- Nociceptors transmit pain signals to CNS
What can repeated stimulus of pain pathways cause?
What are nerve endings that detect painful stimuli called?
What are the main inflammatory mediators?
What is transduction
Pain being detected by nociceptors that then convert the painful stimulus into a nervous signal
What are the pain fibres?
Að and C
What is the aim of analgesia?
To interrupt or modify some or all parts of the CNS pathway
What can ongoing pain cause?
Chronic hypersensitivity to pain that can outlast the actual pain event
What is Allodynia?
Sensitivity to stimuli that would not normally cause pain e.g. touch
What is hyperalgesia
Greater intensity and duration of pain that would be expected
What 5 kinds of drugs are most commonly used
Name 2 opioids used for analgesia and pain management
Where do opioids act?
Centrally and peripherally
How do NSAIDs work?
Inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators via the inhibition of COX enzymes
What kind of NSAIDS are safer for the gut?