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Flashcards in Pain Deck (90)
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31

Modulation

process in which the brain releases inhibitory neurotransmitters to hinder the transmission of pain & help produce an analgesic effect

32

Gate Control Theory of Pain

special cells in dorsal horn regulate pain transmission control the gate the gate can be opened or closed (allow or block pain impulses)

33

Nursing Diagnoses Applicable for Pain

Risk for Caregiver Role Strain Ineffective Coping Fatigue Impaired Physical Motility Acute Pain Chronic Pain Bathing Self-Care Deficit Dressing Self-Care Deficit Risk for Situation Low Self-Esteem Social Isolation

34

Large A Nerve Fibers

nerve fibers that when stimulated, close the impulse gate resulting in no pain

35

Small C Nerve Fibers

nerve fibers that when stimulated, open the impulse gate resulting in pain

36

Factors Influencing Pain Experience

Age Fatigue Neurological Function Gender Attention Previous experience Family Support Spirituality Culture Anxiety Depression Coping Style

37

Idiopathic Pain

chronic pain without identifiable cause

38

Components of Pain Assessment

"PQRSTU" Palliative or Provocative Factors- what makes pain worse? Quality- describe the pain? Relief measures- what do you take at home? Region- show me where it hurts? Severity- scale of 1-10? Timing- constant, intermittent or both? Ur effect- what does the pain inhibit?

39

Breakthrough Pain

transient episodes of pain that occur in patients with chronic pain that has been previously reduced to tolerable levels

40

Nursing Principles for Administering Analgesics

Know patient's previous response to alagesics Select proper medications when more than one is ordered Know accurate dose Assess right time interval for administration Choose right route

41

Excitatory Neurotransmitters

prostoglandins histamine bradykinin substance P

42

Inhibitory Neurotransmitters

endorphins endogenous opioids serotonin norepinephrine GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

43

Clinical Approach to Pain Assessment

"ABCDE" Ask about pain regularly...Assess pain systematically Believe patient & their family Choose pain control options Deliver interventions logically Empower patients & families...Enable them to control their course

44

Palliative Care

care of a patient that offers treatments to help patients live, perhaps years, with a variety of incurable conditions including pain

45

Hospice Care

care for the terminally ill allowing patients to continue to live at home in comfort & privacy with help of a healthcare team

46
Reversed

a physiological mechanism that protects an individual from harmful stimulus (short duration, limited damage)

Acute Pain

47
Reversed

sensory, peripheral pain nerve fiber

Nociceptor

48
Reversed

a pain-sensitizing substance that surrounds pain fibers in extracellular fluid, spreading pain message & causing inflammatory response

Prostoglandins

49
Reversed

inhibitory neurotransmitters that decrease neuron activity without directly transferring a nerve signal through a synapse

Endorphins

50
Reversed

"persistent non-cancer pain" not protective, prolonged pain varied in intensity & usually lasting longer (> 6 months), doesn't always have identifiable cause, leads to great personal suffering

Chronic Pain

51
Reversed

caused by tumor progression & related to pathological response processes, invasive procedures, treatment, toxicity, infection & physical limitations

Cancer Pain

52
Reversed

pain occuring distant to the actual pain site

Referred Pain

53
Reversed

drug delivery system that allows patients to self-administer analgesic meds when they want

Patient-Controlled Analgesic

54
Reversed

stimulation of patient skin to prevent or reduce pain perception

Cutaneous Stimulation

55
Reversed

technique in which a battery powered device blocks pain impulses from reaching the spinal cord by delivering weak electrical impulses to the skin surface

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

56
Reversed

mental & physical freedom from tension & stress that provides individuals with a sense of self-control

Relaxation

57
Reversed

method of pain control in which the patient creates a mental image, concentrates on that image & gradually becomes less aware of pain

Guided Imagery

58
Reversed

drugs that relieve pain

Analgesics

59
Reversed

drug derived from the opium poppy or produced synthetically that alters perception of pain & with repeated use, may cause physical/psychological dependence

Opioids

60
Reversed

medication that causes loss of sensation to a localized body part

Local Anesthesia