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Nursing Concepts > Pain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pain Deck (90)
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1

Acute Pain

a physiological mechanism that protects an individual from harmful stimulus (short duration, limited damage)

2

Nociceptor

sensory, peripheral pain nerve fiber

3

Prostoglandins

a pain-sensitizing substance that surrounds pain fibers in extracellular fluid, spreading pain message & causing inflammatory response

4

Endorphins

inhibitory neurotransmitters that decrease neuron activity without directly transferring a nerve signal through a synapse

5

Chronic Pain

"persistent non-cancer pain" not protective, prolonged pain varied in intensity & usually lasting longer (> 6 months), doesn't always have identifiable cause, leads to great personal suffering

6

Cancer Pain

caused by tumor progression & related to pathological response processes, invasive procedures, treatment, toxicity, infection & physical limitations

7

Referred Pain

pain occuring distant to the actual pain site

8

Patient-Controlled Analgesic

drug delivery system that allows patients to self-administer analgesic meds when they want

9

Cutaneous Stimulation

stimulation of patient skin to prevent or reduce pain perception

10

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

technique in which a battery powered device blocks pain impulses from reaching the spinal cord by delivering weak electrical impulses to the skin surface

11

Relaxation

mental & physical freedom from tension & stress that provides individuals with a sense of self-control

12

Guided Imagery

method of pain control in which the patient creates a mental image, concentrates on that image & gradually becomes less aware of pain

13

Analgesics

drugs that relieve pain

14

Opioids

drug derived from the opium poppy or produced synthetically that alters perception of pain & with repeated use, may cause physical/psychological dependence

15

Local Anesthesia

medication that causes loss of sensation to a localized body part

16

Epidural Infusion

regional anesthesia administered into the epidural space int he spinal cord to block a group of sensory nerve fibers (through a catheter)

17

Somatic Pain

pain that originates from skin, muscle, bone, or tissue

18

Visceral Pain

pain that originates from viscera or hollow organs

19

Neuropathic Pain

pain that originates from nerve damage

20

Phantom Pain

pain that is perceived from a missing limb

21

Pain Threshold

the least amount of stimulation that a person requires to perceive pain

22

Pain Tolerance

maximum amount & duration of pain that person is willing to endure

23

Hyperalgesia

heightened, severe response to pain

24

Placebo

inactive substance or treatment given instead of one that has a proven effect

25

Pseudoaddiction

drug-seeking behavior that simulates true addiction in patients with pain who are receiving inadequate pain medication

26

Properties of Pain

subjective highly individualized protective difficult to assess cannot see has limits can delay healing not equal to amount of damage can have without trauma

27

Four Phases of Physiological Process of Pain

Transduction Transmission Perception Modulation

28

Transduction

process converting energy produced by pain stimuli into electrical energy

29

Transmission

process in which cellular damage from injury results in the release of excitatory neurotransmitters

30

Perception

process in which the brain & CNS extracts information about pain such as location, duration & quality