Overview of Metabolism and Glycolysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Overview of Metabolism and Glycolysis Deck (61)
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1

What is metabolism?

Metabolism refers a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction.

2

What is catabolism?

Catabolism refers to chemical reactions that result in the breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances, release energy (ATP) that is used to drive chemical reactions.

3

What is anabolism?

Anabolism refers to chemical reactions in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex, new, molecules, usually require energy (ATP).

4

What are NAD+ and NADP+?

Oxidizing agents

5

What are NADH and NADPH?

Reducing agents

6

What is the end product of glycolysis?

Pyruvate

7

What is the importance of ketone bodies?

They are important in starvation as they allow for the operation of neurons

8

What is glucose stored as in the body?

Glycogen

9

What is fat stored as in the body?

Triacylglycerol

10

What is the main molecule fed into the TCA cycle?

Acetyl Coenzyme A (AcCoA)

11

What is the common cause of lactose intolerance?

Lactose intolerance occurs in most adults as a result of decreased lactase enzyme production

12

In the fed state, what glucose pathways are occurring?

-Glycogenesis
-Pentose Phosphate Pathway
-Citric Acid Cycle
-Glycolysis

13

What hormone is important in balancing the glucose level in the fed state?

Insulin

14

In the fasting state, what glucose pathways are occurring?

-Glycogenolysis
-Gluconeogenesis

15

What hormones are important for the glucose balance in the fasting state?

Glucagon and Epinephrine

16

What is the main product of anaerobic respiration?

Lactate

17

What is the main product of aerobic respiration?

Pyruvate

18

What is glycogenesis?

Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose (hyperglycemia – Insulin increased)

19

What is glycogenolysis?

Glycogenolysis is the break down of glycogen to glucose-1- phosphate and glucose in the liver and in the muscles by the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase (hypoglycemia – glucagon increased)

20

What is gluconeogenesis?

Gluconeogenesis results in the generation of glucose from non- carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids (hypoglycemia – glucagon increased)

21

What is glycolysis?

Glycolysis (means "splitting sugars

22

What is the sole form of metabolism in RBCs?

Glycolysis

23

What metabolism is found in neurons?

Citric Acid Cycle

24

What metabolism is found in adipose tissue?

Glycolysis but no TCA cycle

25

What glucose receptor is found in liver cells?

GLUT 2

26

What glucose receptor is found in skeletal muscle?

GLUT 4

27

In the fed state in the liver cell what is the process on glucose?

Insulin binds -> Glucose transport into cell via GLUT2 -> Glucokinase converts glucose into G6P

28

In the fasting state in the liver cell what is the process on glucose?

Glucagon binds -> G6Pase converts G6P into glucose -> Glucose transport out of cell via GLUT2

29

In the contracting state of a muscle cell what is the process on glucose?

Glucose transported into the cell via GLUT4 -> Hexokinase converts it into G6P -> G6P is turned into ATP via glycolysis

30

In the resting state of a muscle cell what is the process on glucose?

Glucose transported into the cell via GLUT4 -> Hexokinase converts it into G6P -> G6P is turned into glycogen

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