Overview and Basic Definitions Flashcards Preview

DPT 736 Neuroanatomy > Overview and Basic Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overview and Basic Definitions Deck (18)
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1

Main Parts of Nervous System

-CNS: brain and spinal cord; LMNs
-PNS: cranial and spinal nerves; LMNs

2

Orientation

-above midbrain dorsal is superior, ventral is inferior, caudal is posterior and rostral is anterior
-below midbrain rostral is superior, caudal is inferior, dorsal is posterior, and ventral is anterior

3

Planes of Body

-frontal/coronal: splits body into anterior and posterior
-transverse: splits body into inferior and superior
-sagittal splits body into right and left

4

Tissues of Nervous System

-neuroglia: cells that are the glue or support cells
-neuron: nerve cell (basic units of signaling)

5

CNS Gray Matter and White Matter

-white matter: nerve fibers (AXONS) and their myelin coverings
-gray matter: masses of cell bodies that contain pigments; cerebral cortex: surface of cerebral hemispheres covered by gray matter; also found in large cluster of cells called nuclei-basal ganglia, thalamus, and cranial nerve nuclei

6

PNS Ganglia and Nerves

-nerves: axons in PNS form bundles called peripheral nerves (aka)
-ganglia: compact group of nerve cell bodies located in the PNS

7

Tissues of Nervous System

-tracts: nerve fibers that course over a pathway and share similar connections and functions
-nuclei: islands in a white matter of a fairly compact group of nerve cell bodies with the CNS

8

White Matter Pathways in CNS

-tract=fascicle=lemniscus=bundle
-commissure: white matter pathway that connects structures on R and L sides of CNS ex: corpus callosum
-afferent: carry signals toward a structure
-efferent: carry signals away from structure

9

UMN vs. LMN

-UMN: projects from cortex down to spinal cord or brainstem
-LMN: project out of CNS via anterior spinal roots or via cranial nerves to reach muscle cells
-located in anterior horns of central gray matter of spinal cord or in brainstem motor nucleus

10

Motor and Sensory Pathways

-motor systems: main motor pathway=corticospinal tract, cerebellum and basal ganglia
-somatosensory systems: main somatosensory pathways=posterior column pathways (proprioception, vibration sense, fine touch) and anterolateral pathways (pain, temperature and crude touch)
-thalamus: relay station

11

Parts of Brain

-prosencephalon=forebrain, made up of telencephalon (cortex/hemispheres) and diencephalon (thalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus)
-mesencephalon=midbrain (substantia nigra, red nucleus, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi)
-rhombencephalon made up of medencephalon and mylencephalon
-brainstem: pons, medulla, midbrain
-hindbrain: cerebellum, pons, medulla

12

Cerebrum Lobes

-occipital
-parietal
-frontal
-temporal
-insula

13

Cerebrum

-gyri: bumps/raised area, precentral gyrus is where primary motor cortex is, postcentral gyrus is where primary sensory cortex is, superior temporal gyrus: is auditory cortex
-sulci: depressions have central and lateral that are main ones

14

PNS

-12 pairs cranial nerves; pass through foramina or fissures in cranial cavity; all except accessory nerve originate from the brain
-31 pairs spinal nerves with ventral and dorsal roots

15

Spinal Cord Characteristics

-extends from foramen magnum to level of disc between L1 and L2 vertebrae
-distal end is conus medullaris
-filum terminale (coccygeal ligament-tethers cord down)
-2 enlargements: cervical (C5-T1) and lumbar (L1-S3) where extremities are so more info happening here

16

Spinal Nerves

-consists of sensory, motor, and autonomic signals between spinal cord and body
-dorsal root: afferent sensory axons
-dorsal ganglion
-ventral root: efferent motor axons
-dorsal ramus
-ventral ramus
-look at picture schematic in notes

17

ANS

-sympathetic division: fight or flight
-parasympathetic division: rest and digest; feed and breed

18

Cranial and Spinal Meniges

-cover brain
-dura
-arachnoid
-pia
-potential spaces of layers: epidural space (dura-skull interface); sub-dura space (dura-arachnoid interface); subarachnoid space (arachnoid-pia interface)
-subarachnoid space contains CSF which cushions the brain and protects it, circulates throughout brain (in ventricles and around brain and spinal cord), helps maintain constant intracranial pressure, this space extends down to 2nd sacral segment (lumbar cistern L1-S2...lumbar puncture)
-CSF produced by choroid plexus