Outline and discuss key factors driving increased Caribbean urbanization during the twentieth century. Flashcards Preview

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1

Level & Pace of Urbanization in the Caribbean

HIGH Levels: population in urban areas

the Bahamas,
Cayman Island,
Dominican Republic,
Martinique,
Puerto Rico,
Trinidad and Tobago,
and US Virgin Islands

2

Level & Pace of Urbanization in the Caribbean

MODERATE Levels:

Barbados,
Guadeloupe,
St. Kitts and Nevis
and St. Lucia

3

Level & Pace of Urbanization in the Caribbean

(Relatively) LOW Levels:

Montserrat,
Haiti,
St. Vincent,
Antigua
and Barbuda

4

Level & Pace of Urbanization in the Caribbean: Urban Growth

HIGH (>2.8%)

Antigua and Barbuda,
Dominican Republic,
Haiti,
Montserrat,
St. Lucia,
St. Vincent
and Guyana

5

Level & Pace of Urbanization in the Caribbean: Urban Growth

LOW

Cayman Islands,
Cuba,
Guadeloupe,
Martinique,
Puerto Rico
and Trinidad and Tobago

6

Urban Growth

=>cities with high levels of urbanization have low growth rates and vice-versa

=>a possible slowing down of urban growth in countries with high levels of urbanization

7

Some Outcomes of Urbanisation

Increase in large cities (+100,000)

1950=7 cities in region

1970=12 cities

Late 1980s=at least 24

8

Some Outcomes of Urbanisation (2)

Urban Primacy

1st ranked city several times larger than next ranked city

Generally, +40% of nation’s population

9

Some Outcomes of Urbanisation (3)

Kingston:

1970-12x larger than Spanish Town+Montego Bay

1982-6x larger than “ + 7.5x “

2005-4x larger than “ + 7x “

-reducing urban primacy

10

Some Outcomes of Urbanisation (4)

Cuba:
Havana= 5x larger than Santiago de Cuba
7.5x larger than Camaguey

Puerto Rico:
San Juan=7x larger than Ponce

11

Factors Driving Urbanisation

Rural-urban migration

Natural increase

Economic diversification

Historical antecedents

12

Factors Driving Urbanisation (2)

Rural-urban migration:

Stepwise up urban hierarchy

Some direct to capital

Flow of migrants declines with distance from capital

Push: rural poverty, low earnings, small farm holdings, low status

Pull: better employment, more educational facilities, higher status jobs, more services

13

Factors Driving Urbanisation (3)

Natural Increase:

High levels of births in relation to deaths

Improvements in health

Increased access to medical facilities

14

Factors Driving Urbanisation (4)

Economic Diversification:

Industrialization
Tourism
Mining

15

Factors Driving Urbanisation (5)

Historical Antecedents:

Colonization
Sugar plantations
Slavery

16

Challenges of Urbanisation in the Caribbean

Unemployment:

Since 1930s in Jamaica
Higher rates for urban areas
Linked to social instability

17

Challenges of Urbanisation in the Caribbean

Crime:
World Bank-6 categories of urban violence
1) political
2) gang
3) drug
4) economic
5) interpersonal
6) domestic

18

Challenges of Urbanisation in the Caribbean

Crime:
low investor confidence

economic decline

movement of business out of affected area

high health and police costs

disaffection and migration of urban middle class

higher mortality and morbidity rates

reduced access to social services

breakdown of community spirit

gender related violence

19

Challenges of Urbanisation in the Caribbean

Informal Settlements:

UN Habitat-
Jamaica = 36% of urban dwellers
Trinidad & Tobago = 32%
Haiti = 86%
Guatemala = 62%

20

Challenges of Urbanisation in the Caribbean

Environmental Management:

Parish Councils dependent on Central Government

Inadequate resources

Inadequate infrastructure/processing

Health problems: respiratory problems, malaria, birth defects

21

Challenges of Urbanisation in the Caribbean

Transportation:

Inability of modes and processes of transportation to keep pace with urban population

Congestion, pollution, long waiting times, poor road conditions, increased number of private vehicles