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Flashcards in Outcome measures Deck (28)
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1

T/F most measurements are directly observable

False

we can measure only a correlate of the actual property

2

Biomarker

objective, quantifiable characteristics of biological process.

3

surrogate endpoint

substitute for clinically meaningful endpoint

4

Match Terms:
Reliability, Validity

Accuracy, Consistency

Reliability = Consistency

Validity = Accuracy

5

Correlation

the degree of association between 2 sets of data

draw scatter plot to visualize

correlation coefficient (r) to quantify it

6

Test-Retest reliability

consistency of repeated measurements that are separated in time

stability of a measurement

7

Intrarater reliability

consistency of repeated measurements by same PT at different times

8

Interrater reliability

Consistency of repeated measurements by multiple PTs.

9

Internal consistency

Consistency over multiple items or parts in a test, where each part is supposed to measure one concept

10

Face validity

does the content of the test appear to be suitable to its aims?

11

content validity

is the test fully representative of what it aims to measure?

12

construct validity

does the test measure the concept that it is intended to measure?

13

Dichotomous scale

categorical
two point scale
yes/no, T/F

14

5 point Likert scale

ordinal
5 point scale
always/often/sometimes/rarely/never

15

Visual Analog Scale

-continuous

-line with verbal anchors at either end

-put mark at point corresponding to rating

16

Performance Based outcome measurement

when patient is required to perform a set of functional tasks

FIM

17

Self reported outcome measurement

when patient is required to complete a questionnaire

Owestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI)

18

Error Parameters

quantify errors in measurements

not as widely reported as reliability or validity

important to determine amount of error associated with patient's outcome measure

19

Standard error of measurement

amount of variability that can be attributed to measurement error

20

Minimal detectable change

minimal change a patient must show on scale to ensure that the observed change is real

21

Clinical Utility Considerations

appropriateness of test for application

precision of test to accurately change measure

interpretability of the test to individual's situation

acceptability of test to individual

time and cost of administering the test

22

Cohen's kappa

a measure of agreement between to categorical variables

23

PR(o)

probability of relative observed agreement

24

Pr(e)

probability of expected agreement just by chance among 2 examiners

25

Interpretation of Cohen's Kappa

decimal between 0 and +1
+1 = perfect agreement
0 = no agreement
0-.4 = poor
.4-.75 = fair to good
.75-1 = excellent

26

Which reliability doesn't use kappa or correlation coefficient to check?

internal consistency

it uses Cronbach's alpha

27

Confirmatory factor analysis

investigates construct validity

how well measurement represents the number of constructs

28

Cluster Analysis

investigates construct validity

statistical procedure used to classify a group of subjects on the basis of a set of measured variables into a number of different groups