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Flashcards in Other Sexual Offences Deck (10)
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1

Sexual Violation Penalty Provisions

Of note only

Section 128B, CA61

(1) Every one who commits sexual violation is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 20 years.

(2) A person convicted of sexual violation must be sentenced to imprisonment unless, having regard to the matters stated in subsection (3), the court thinks that the person should not be sentenced to imprisonment.

(3) The matters are-
(a) the particular circumstances of the person convicted; and
(b) the particular circumstances of the offence, including the nature of the conduct constituting it.

2

Sexual Conduct by Coercion

Elements

S129A CA61

(1) Every one who has sexual connection with another person knowing that the other person has been induced to consent to the connection by threat is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years.

(2) Every one who does an indecent act on another person knowing that the other person has been induced to consent to the act by threat is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years.

3

Sexual Conduct by Coercion

Knowledge

Of note only

S129A CA61

(3) For the purposes of subsection (1), a person who has sexual connection with another person knows that the other person has been induced to consent to the sexual connection by threat if (and only if) he or she knows that the other person has been induced to consent to the sexual connection by an express or implied threat of a kind described in subsection (5).

(4) For the purposes of subsection (2),—
(a) a person who does an indecent act on another person knows that the other person has been induced to consent to the act by threat if (and only if) he or she knows that the other person has been induced to consent to the act by an express or implied threat of a kind described in subsection (5); and

(b) a person is induced to consent to an indecent act whether—
(i) he or she is induced to consent to the doing of an indecent act with or on him or her; or
(ii) he or she is induced to consent to do an indecent act himself or herself.

4

Sexual Conduct by Coercion

Kinds of Threat

Of note only

S129A CA61

(5) The kinds of threat referred to in subsections (3) and (4)(a) are—

(a) a threat that the person making the threat or some other person will commit an offence that—
(i) is punishable by imprisonment; but
(ii) does not involve the actual or threatened application of force to any person; and

(b) a threat that the person making the threat or some other person will make an accusation or disclosure (whether true or false) about misconduct by any person (whether living or dead) that is likely to damage seriously the reputation of the person against or about whom the accusation or disclosure is made; and

(c) a threat that the person making the threat will make improper use, to the detriment of the person consenting, of a power or authority arising out of—
(i) an occupational or vocational position held by the person making the threat; or
(ii) a commercial relationship existing between the person making the threat and the person consenting.

5

Incest

Elements

S130 CA61, 10 years imp

(1) Sexual connection is incest if—

(a) it is between 2 people whose relationship is that of parent and child, siblings, half-siblings, or grandparent and grandchild; and

(b) the person charged knows of the relationship.

(2) Every one of or over the age of 16 years who commits incest is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.

6

Sexual Conduct with Dependant Family Member

Elements

S131 CA61

(1) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who has sexual connection with a dependent family member under the age of 18 years.

(2) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years who attempts to have sexual connection with a dependent family member under the age of 18 years.

(3) Every one is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years who does an indecent act on a dependent family member under the age of 18 years.

Of note

(4) The dependent family member cannot be charged as a party to the offence.

(5) It is not a defence to a charge under this section that the dependent family member consented.

7

Dependant Family Member Definition

S131A CA61

(1) For the purposes of section 131, one person is a dependent family member of another person—

(a) if the other person has power or authority over him or her, and is—
(i) his or her parent, step-parent, foster parent, guardian, uncle, or aunt; or
(ii) a parent, step-parent, or foster parent of a person described in
subparagraph (i); or
(iii) a child of his or her parent or step-parent; or
(iv) the spouse or de facto partner of a person described in subparagraph (i) or subparagraph (ii) or subparagraph (iii); or

(b) if they are members of the same family, whanau, or other culturally recognised family group, and the other person—
(i) is not a person referred to in paragraph (a); but
(ii) has a responsibility for, or significant role in, his or her care or
upbringing; or

(c) if he or she is living with the other person as a member of the other person's family, and the other person is not a person referred to in paragraph (a), but has—
(i) power or authority over him or her; and
(ii) a responsibility for, or significant role in, his or her care or upbringing.

8

Dependant Family Member Definition

Also includes

S131A CA61

(2) In subsection (1),—

- Aunt, in relation to a person, includes a half-sister of one of the person's parents

- Uncle, in relation to a person, includes a half-brother of one of the person's parents.

- Foster parent includes a former foster parent

- Step-parent includes a former step-parent

- Guardian—
(a) means guardian by virtue of the Guardianship Act 1968 or the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989; and
(b) includes a former guardian

9

Meeting Young Person Following Grooming

Elements

S131B CA61

(1) Every person is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years if,—

(a) having met or communicated with a person under the age of 16 years (the young person) on an earlier occasion, he or she takes one of the following actions:
(i) intentionally meets the young person:
(ii) travels with the intention of meeting the young person:
(iii) arranges for or persuades the young person to travel with the intention of meeting him or her; and

(b) at the time of taking the action, he or she intends—
(i) to take in respect of the young person an action that, if taken in New Zealand, would be an offence against this Part, or against any of paragraphs (a)(i), (d)(i), (e)(i), (f)(i), of section 98AA(1); or
(ii) that the young person should do on him or her an act the doing of which would, if he or she permitted it to be done in New Zealand, be an offence against this Part on his or her part.

10

Meeting Young Person Following Grooming

When offence is complete and

Now includes who

The offence is complete when the parties meet, or the defendant travels or makes arrangements to meet the complainant with the relevant intent. To be intentional the meeting need only be “purposely arranged”.

S131B(1A) CA61

Young person also includes a constable who pretends to be a young person under the age of 16. The prosecution must prove the offender (when taking any of the actions in subsection (1)) believed the fictitious young person was a young person under the age of 16 years.