What two bones comprise the sternum?
The manubrium and corpus sterni.
Describe the costal notches and the sternum.
The first costal notch is inferior to the jugular notch (for the clavicle) on the manubrium. The second is found on the sternal angle, and the remaining 3-7 are found on the lateral sides of the corpus sterni. These are the sites of articulation of the rib heads.
What variably ossified featured is sometimes found inferior to the sternum?
The xiphoid process.
How is the sternum sided?
The anterior face of the sternum is convex; the posterior side is concave and dips inward.
How many ribs does an adult human have? Describe how they differ.
24: 12 on each side. Ribs 1-7 are "true" ribs and articulate directly with the sternum. Ribs 8-10 attach to the sternum through intermediate cartilage and are called "false ribs". Ribs 11 and 12 have unattached distal ends and are called "floating ribs".
Rib length typically increases from 1 to 7 and decreases from 7 to 12.
The head of the rib (proximal end) bears ______ for attachment to thoracic vertebrae bodies. Which ribs are unifaceted?
demifacets: two articular surfaces. Ribs 1, 10, 11, and 12 are unifaceted.
Describe features of the proximal rib head.
The head and neck: The crest of the rib head separates the two demifacets. The tubercle articulates with transverse process of thoracic vertebrae. The neck is the thinnest portion.
Describe the general features of a rib.
Sternal end, caudal edge, cranial edge, shaft, neck, head.
What features are unique to the first rib?
The scalene tubercle, on the cranial surface the groove for the subclavian artery and brachail plexus and the groove for the subclavian vein.
What is unique about the second rib?
It is intermediate in size between R1 and R3 and has a large tuberosity for the serratus anterior muscle in a cranial midshaft position.
What are the three major parts of the hyoid bone?
The body and the greater and lesser horns.
What encloses the spinal cord posterior to the vertebral body?
The vertebral arch.
The short segment of the vertebral arch near the body on the superior side is the
Posterior to the pedicle is the
The three most prominent processes of a vertebra are the
spinous process and two transverse processes
Vertebrae articulate with one another through
pairs of superior and inferior articular facets
The transverse processes of cervical vertebrae are unique in that they have
transverse foramina that form a path for the vertebral arteries
The spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae are unique in that they are usually
The superior surface of the body of a cervical vertebrae is cup-shaped with the edges marked off by
Describe three features of the lateral portions of cervical transverse processes
posterior and anterior tubercles and intertubercular lamina.
The ___ of the atlas are concave and elongate and receive the condyles of the occipital bone.
superior articular facets of the atlas.
In turning one's head, the atlas pivots on the ___ of the ___.
dens/odontoid process of the axis.
C7 can be distriguished because it retains transverse foramina but has a
larger spinous process reminiscent of a thoracic vertebrae.
Give the numbers of the different vertebrae
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar
Rib heads articulate to the transverse processes of most thoracic vertebrae through
costal facets formed by a pair of demifacets
Which thoracic vertebrae possess a full facet for rib articulation?
T1, T10, T11, and T12.
Describe the angle range for thoracic transverse processes
T1 is near 180 degrees and T10-12 near 90 degrees
Which thoracic vertebrae possesses a full facet and a demifacet?
Describe the unique features of T10-T12
All have a complete, superiorly located costal facet. T10 has costal articulations on the transverse processes, T11 and 12 do not, and the inferior articular facets of T12 assume the lumbar pattern.
A hatchet shaped spinous process would belong to a