Flashcards in Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 8 Deck (58)
are groups of two or more people who interact and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated with organizational objectives.
What are the 4 reasons teams exist?
1) Exist to fulfill some purpose
2) Team members are held together by their interdependence and need for collaboration to achieve common goals.
3) Team members influence each other, although some members may be more influential than others regarding the team's goals and activities.
4) a team exists when its members perceive themselves to be a team.
Teams that consist of employees who have similar or complementary skills and are located in the same unit of a functional structure; usually minimal task interdependence because each person works with employees in other departments.
Typically multiskilled (employees have diverse competencies), team members collectively produce a common product/ service or make ongoing decisions
Similar to production/service teams except (1) they are organized around work processes that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and (2) they have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks (i.e. they usually control inputs, flow, and outputs with little or no supervision)
Usually multiskilled, temporary teams whose assignment is to solve a problem, realize an opportunity, or design a product or service.
Task force (project) teams
Similar to task forces, these highly skilled teams are formed for a short duration and given considerable autonomy to resolve an urgent problem or opportunity, such as solving an emergency or crisis
Teams that provide recommendations to decision makers; include committees, advisory councils, work councils, and review panels; may be temporary, but often permanent, some with a frequent rotation of members.
Multiskilled teams that are usually located away from the organization and are relatively free of its hierarchy; often initiated by an entrepreneurial team leader who borrows people and resources (bootlegging) to design a product or service.
Teams whose members operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks; may be a temporary task force or permanent service team
Teams (but often informal groups) bound together by shared expertise and passion for a particular activity or interest; main purpose is to share information; often rely on information technologies as the main source of interaction.
Communities of practice
What are four reasons that informal groups exist?
1) One reason is that human beings are social animals
2) social identity theory, which states that individuals define themselves by their group affiliations
3) they accomplish personal objectives that cannot be achieved by individuals working alone
4) we are comforted by the mere presence of other people and are therefore motivated to be near them in stressful situations
What are some advantages of a team?
1) more motivated when working in teams than when working- alone
2) people are more motivated in teams because they are accountable to fellow team members
3) under some circumstances, performance improves when employees work near others because co-workers become benchmarks of comparison
resources (including time and energy) expended toward team development and maintenance rather than the task
that adding more people to a late software project only makes it later
What are some disadvantages of a team?
1) Process losses
2) social loafing
when people exert less effort (and usually perform at a lower level) in teams than when working alone
what makes up the team effectiveness model?
1) Org and team environment
2) Team design
3) Team States
4) Team process
5) Team effectiveness
What makes up organization and team environment?
3) Organizational structure
4) Organizational leadership
5) Physical space
What makes up team design?
1) team characteristics
2) Team size
3) Team composition
What makes up team states?
3) Team efficacy
4) Team trust
What makes up team processes?
1) task work
2) team work
3) Boundary spanning
What makes up team effectivenesss?
1) Accomplish tasks
2) Satisfy member needs
3) Maintain team survival
the extent to which team members must share materials, information, or expertise to perform their jobs
What are the 3 levels of interdependence?
1) Pooled interdependence
2) Sequential Interdependence
3) Reciprocal interdependence
occurs when an employee or work unit shares a common resource
the output of one person becomes the direct input for another person or unit
work output is exchanged back and forth among individuals, produces the highest degree of interdependence
Effective team members are willing and able to work together rather than alone