Flashcards in Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 3 Deck (32)
Refers to an individual's self-beliefs and self-evaluations
What are the three characterstics an individual's self concept can be described as?
People are inherently motivated to perceive themselves as competent, attractive, lucky, ethical and important
Individuals try to confirm and maintain their existing self-concept
What are the three elements that make up self-evaluation
Locus of control
the extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves
Refers to a person's belief that he or she can successfully complete a task
a person's general beliefs about the amount of control he or she has over personal life events
locus of control
we define ourselves by the groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment
social identity theory
the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us
the process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other information
the nonconscious tendency for people to screen out information that is contrary to their decisions, beliefs, values, and assumptions
the mostly nonconscious process of organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory
Knowledge structures that we develop to describe, explain, and predict the world around us
The perceptual process in which we assign characteristics to an identifiable group and then automatically transfer those features to anyone we believe is a member of that group
Why do people stereotype?
-Easier to remember features of a stereotype than the constellation of characteristics unique to everyone we meet
-we have an innate need to understand and anticipate how others will behave
-Motivated by the observer's own need for social identity and self-enhancement
Social identity is a comparative process, and the comparison begins by categorizing people into distinct groups.
To simplify the comparison process, we tend to think that people within each group are very similar to each other
A phenomenon whereby members of a stereotyped group are concerned that they might exhibit a negative feature of the stereotype
What are some problems with stereotyping?
-Do not accurately describe every person in a social category
-lays the foundation for discriminatory attitudes and behaviour
What are the three attritibution theory rules?
The tendency to attribute our failures to external causes more than internal causes, while crediting our success more to internal than external factors
the tendency to overemphasize internal causes of another person's behavior and to discount or ignore external causes of their behavior
Fundamental attribution error
When our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations
What are the four steps in the self-fulfilling prophecy cycle?
1. Supervisor forms expectations about the employee
2. Supervisor's expectations affect his/her behaviour toward the employee
3. Supervisor's behaviour affects the employee's ability and motivation (self-confidence)
4. Employee's behaviour becomes more consistent with the supervisor's intial expectations
when our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, distorts our perception of other characteristics of that person.
occurs when people overestimate the extent to which others have similar beliefs or behaviors to their own
our tendency to quickly form an opinion of people on the basis of the first information we receive about them
Occurs when the most recent information dominates our perceptions