Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 3 Deck (32)
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1

Refers to an individual's self-beliefs and self-evaluations

Self-Concept

2

What are the three characterstics an individual's self concept can be described as?

Complexity
Consistency
Clarity

3

People are inherently motivated to perceive themselves as competent, attractive, lucky, ethical and important

Self-Enhancement

4

Individuals try to confirm and maintain their existing self-concept

Self-verfication

5

What are the three elements that make up self-evaluation

Self-Esteem
Self-Efficacy
Locus of control

6

the extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves

Self-esteem

7

Refers to a person's belief that he or she can successfully complete a task

Self-Efficacy

8

a person's general beliefs about the amount of control he or she has over personal life events

locus of control

9

we define ourselves by the groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment

social identity theory

10

the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us

Perception

11

the process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other information

selective attention

12

the nonconscious tendency for people to screen out information that is contrary to their decisions, beliefs, values, and assumptions

Confirmation bias

13

the mostly nonconscious process of organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory

Categorical thinking

14

Knowledge structures that we develop to describe, explain, and predict the world around us

Mental models

15

The perceptual process in which we assign characteristics to an identifiable group and then automatically transfer those features to anyone we believe is a member of that group

Stereotyping

16

Why do people stereotype?

-Easier to remember features of a stereotype than the constellation of characteristics unique to everyone we meet
-we have an innate need to understand and anticipate how others will behave
-Motivated by the observer's own need for social identity and self-enhancement

17

Social identity is a comparative process, and the comparison begins by categorizing people into distinct groups.

Categorization

18

To simplify the comparison process, we tend to think that people within each group are very similar to each other

Homogenization

19

A phenomenon whereby members of a stereotyped group are concerned that they might exhibit a negative feature of the stereotype

Stereotype threat

20

What are some problems with stereotyping?

-Do not accurately describe every person in a social category
-Stereotype threat
-lays the foundation for discriminatory attitudes and behaviour

21

What are the three attritibution theory rules?

-Consistency
-Distinctiveness
-Consensus

22

The tendency to attribute our failures to external causes more than internal causes, while crediting our success more to internal than external factors

Self-Serving Bias

23

the tendency to overemphasize internal causes of another person's behavior and to discount or ignore external causes of their behavior

Fundamental attribution error

24

When our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations

Self-Fulfilling prophecy

25

What are the four steps in the self-fulfilling prophecy cycle?

1. Supervisor forms expectations about the employee
2. Supervisor's expectations affect his/her behaviour toward the employee
3. Supervisor's behaviour affects the employee's ability and motivation (self-confidence)
4. Employee's behaviour becomes more consistent with the supervisor's intial expectations

26

when our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, distorts our perception of other characteristics of that person.

Halo effect

27

occurs when people overestimate the extent to which others have similar beliefs or behaviors to their own

False-Consensus effect

28

our tendency to quickly form an opinion of people on the basis of the first information we receive about them

Primacy Effect

29

Occurs when the most recent information dominates our perceptions

Recency effect

30

What are the four windows in the Johari window?

-Open Area
-Blind Area
-Unknown Area
-Hidden Area