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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (88)
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1

Functional group

An atom or group of atoms which is responsible for the characteristic properties of a series of organic compounds

2

Substitute reaction

A chemical reaction in which an atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group of atoms

3

Mechanism for substitute reaction

free radical substitution
initiation (homolytic fission)
propagation
termination

4

Addition reaction

-A chemical reaction in which two substances react together forming a single substance

-Only happens to unsaturated compounds

5

Mechanism for addition reaction

ionic addition
apparoach/polarisation/heterolytic fission/carbonium ion/ product formation

6

Polymers

long chain molecules made by joining together many small molecules called monomers

7

Elimination reaction

one in which a small molecule is removed from a larger molecule to leave a double bond in the larger molecule

8

Organic synthesis

The process of making organic compounds from simpler starting materials

9

Chloroalkane

a compound in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms in an alkane molecule have been replaced by chlorine atoms

10

Example of a chloroalkane

chloroform (CHCL₃)

11

Use of chloroalkanes

-As solvents for removing oil + grease marks from machinery
-In dry cleaning of clothes - remove substances without harming the fabric

12

Examples of chloroalkanes

Monochloromethane
Dichloromethan
Trichloromethane (chloroform)
Tetrachloromethane

1-Chloropropane
1,2-dichloropropane
1,1,1-trichloroethane

13

Chloroalkane notes

have same basic tetrahedral shape as corresponding alkanes

not a hydrocarbon - contains Cl

14

Physical properties of chloroalkanes

-Solubility: do not dissolve in water, readily dissolve with non-polar solvents eg. cyclohexane, methylbenzene

-Physical state: liquids at room temp

15

Polar

dissolves in water

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Non-polar

needs an organic solvent

17

Alcohols functional group

-OH group (the hydroxyl/hydroxide group)

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General formula of alcohols

Cₙ H₂ₙ₊₁ OH

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Naming alcohols

change the -e ending to -ol
eg. methane --> methanol

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Examples of alcohols

methanol (methyl alcohol)
ethanol (ethy alcohol)
propan-1-ol
propan-2-ol
butan-1-ol

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Classifications of alcohols

primary
secondary
tertiary

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Primary alcohol

one where carbon atom joined to the -OH group is attached to only one other carbon atom

23

Secondary alcohol

One where the carbon atom joined to the -OH group is attached to two other carbon atoms

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Tertiary alcohol

one where the carbon atom joined to the -OH group is attached to three other carbon atoms

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Ethanol

ethanol for alcoholic drinks is produced by a process known as fermentation

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Glucose fermenting equation

C₆H₁₂O₆ --(yeast)--> 2C₂O₅OH ₊ 2CO₂

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Methanol property

particularly toxic

28

Use of methanol

added to industrial alcohol to prevent people from drinking it (used as a denaturing agent)

29

methylated spirits

mixture which consists of approx. 90% ethanol and 10% methanol

30

ethanol's effects on the body

1. Relax muscles, loosening inhibitions

2. V. toxic chemical if taken in large quantities (ethanol poisoning)

3. Excess - cause unconsciousness, vomitting. Can lead to death (drowning in vomit) + liver failure

4. Depresses activity of the central nervous system - shows reaction time, makes us less vigilant, impairs judgement