Oesophageal Disorders Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Oesophageal Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oesophageal Disorders Deck (134)
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1

What is the length of the oesophagus?

25cm

2

Where does the oesophagus begin and end?

Begins at lower level of cricoid cartilage (C6)

Terminates at T11-T12 where it enters the stomach

3

What kind of muscle is present in the oesophagus?

Upper 1/3 is skeletal muscle

Lower 2/3 is smooth muscle

4

What is the classification of the epithelium in the oesophagus?

Stratified squamous

5

What is the function of the oesophagus?

Transport food/liquid from the mouth to the stomach which is an active process

6

What propels swallowed materials into the stomach?

Oesophageal peristalsis

7

What produces oesophageal peristalsis?

Oesophageal circular muscles

8

What must the oesophageal circular muscles coordinate with so that food can enter the stomach?

Lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS)

9

What must the LOS do to allow food to enter the stomach?

Relax

10

What is contraction in the oesophageal body (peristalsis) and relaxation of the LOS mediated by?

Vagus nerve

11

What forms the LOS?

Striated muscle of the right crus of diaphragm

12

What is formed by the acute angle of His at gastro-oesophageal junction?

Mucosal rosette

13

What does GOJ stand for?

Gastro-oesophageal junction

14

What is the resting pressure like in distal smooth muscle of oesophagus?

High resting pressure due to LOS

15

What are key symptoms of oesophageal disease?

Heartburn

Dysphagia

16

What is heartburn?

Retrosternal discomfort or burning

17

What can heartburn be associated with?

Waterbrash (sudden flow of saliva)

Cough

18

What is a sudden flow of saliva called?

Waterbrash

19

What is heartburn a consequence of?

Reflux of acidic and/or bilious gastric contents into oesophagus

20

What do things that reduce LOS pressure result in?

Increased reflux/heartburn

21

What are examples of things that can reduce LOS pressure?

Drugs (dietary xanthines, alcohol, nicotine)

Food

22

What does persistent reflux and heartburn lead to?

Gastro-oesophageal disease (GORD)

23

What does GORD stand for?

Gastro-oesophageal disease

24

What is dysphagia?

Subjective sensation of difficulty in swallowing foods and/or liquids

25

26

What often accompanies dysphagia?

Odynophagia (pain when swallowing)

27

What is pain when swallowing called?

Odynophagia

28

What should you enquire about when a patient presents with dysphagia?

Type of food (solid v liquid)

Pattern (progressive, intermittent)

Associated features (weight loss, regurgitation, cough)

29

Where can the location of dysphagia be?

Oropharyngeal (part of throat behind the mouth)

Oesophageal

30

What is the part of the throat behind the mouth called?

Oropharyngeal