Flashcards in Obtains By Deception - Credit Deck (11)
Section and Penalty
Exceeds $1000 - 7 Years Imp
$500 to $1000 - 1 Year Imp
Under $500 - 3 Months Imp
-By any deception and without claim of right
-In incurring any debt or liability
(a) a false representation, whether oral, documentary, or by conduct, where the person making the representation intends to deceive any other person and -
(i) knows that it is false in a material particular; or
(ii) is reckless as to whether it is false in a material particular; or
(b) an omission to disclose a material particular, with intent to deceive any person, in circumstances where there is a duty to disclose it; or
(c) a fraudulent device, trick, or stratagem used with intent to deceive any person.
R v Morley
Intent to Deceive
An intention to deceive requires that the deception is practised in order to deceive the affected party. Purposeful intent is necessary and must exist at the time of the deception.
R v Morley
Representations must relate to a statement of existing fact, rather than a statement of future intention
R v Harney
Recklessness means the conscious and deliberate taking of an unjustified risk. In New Zealand it involves proof that the consequence complained of could well happen, together with an intention to continue the course of conduct regardless of risk.
Claim of Right
In relation to any act, means a belief at the time of the act in a proprietary or possessory right in property in relation to which the offence is alleged to have been committed, although that belief may be based on ignorance or mistake of fact or of any matter of law other than the enactment against which the offence is alleged to have been committed.
Incurring debt or liability
Of note only
The debt or liability (incurred) must be legally enforceable. This means that if the contract is void or illegal there will be no offence.
‘Debt’ means money owing from one person to another.
‘Liability’ means a legally enforceable financial obligation to pay, such as the cost of a meal.
Fisher v Raven
Fisher v Raven
‘Credit’ refers to the obligation on the debtor to pay or repay, and the time given for them to do so by the creditor. Credit does not extend to an obligation to supply services or goods:
- obtaining money on loan
- extending existing overdraft facilities
- renting or leasing a dwelling.
R v McKay
Timing of intention to deceive
R v Mckay
On appeal it was held that the credit had been obtained on booking in but at that time the accused did not possess an intent to deceive.