Obstructive Airway Disease Overview Flashcards Preview

Respiriatory: Airway Disease > Obstructive Airway Disease Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in Obstructive Airway Disease Overview Deck (86)
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1

What is an obstructive respiratory disease?

Affects the airways

2

What is a restrictive airway disease?

Affects the lungs

3

What are some examples of obstructive airway diseases?

* Asthma
* COPD
* Chronic bronchitis (COPD)
* Emphysema (COPD)

4

What is asthma?

Allergic inflammatory reaction which is usually reversible

5

What is chronic bronchitis (COPD) caused by?

Smoking

6

What is chronic bronchitis characterised by?

Neutrophil inflammation

7

What is emphysema (COPD)?

Emphysema is a condition which causes airflow obstruction but is not a disease of the conducting airways (disease of respiratory airways - alveoli)

8

What is ACOS?

Asthma/COPD overlap syndrome
* Long-standing cigarette smokers who have features of both asthma and COPD

9

Which airways become inflamed in asthma?

Both large airways (trachea, bronchi) and small airways (bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, alveolar ducts/sacs)

10

What are large airways?

Diameter larger than 2mm
* Trachea
* Bronchi

11

What are small airways?

Diameter less than 2mm
* Bronchioles
* Terminal bronchioles
* Alveolar sacs

12

Where does the conducting zone end and acinar zone begin?

After 17 generation (division)

13

What is the conducting zone?

Where gas transport takes place

14

What is the acinar/respiratory zone?

Where gas exchange takes place

15

What airways make up the conducting zone?

* Trachea
* Bronchi
* Bronchioles

16

What airways make up the acinar/respiratory zone?

* Terminal bronchioles
* Alveolar sacs

17

How many levels of branching does the respiratory tree undergo?

23

18

At what point in the respiratory tree do large airways become small airways?

After 7th generation

19

How does COPD cause airway obstruction?

* Contraction of smooth muscle causes airway to constrict
* Alveolar walls keep respiratory tree open - COPD results in destruction of alveolar walls and bronchial tree collapse

20

What is atopic asthma?

Individual experiences attacks in response to allergens

21

What is non-atopic asthma?

Individual does not experience attacks in response to allergens

22

What is extrinsic asthma?

Has an external trigger factor e.g. allergen, chemical, environmental pollution

23

What is intrinsic asthma?

No external trigger factor

24

What are the 3 points the characterise asthma?

* Airway inflammation (characterised by presence of eosinophils)
* Airway hyper responsiveness
* Reversible airflow obstruction

25

What characterises asthmatic inflammation?

Eosinophils

26

What characterises inflammation caused by chronic bronchitis (COPD)?

Neutrophils

27

What is airway hyper responsiveness?

Airway becomes sensitive to a variety of abnormal stimuli

28

What does chronic airway inflammation result in?

* Exacerbation
* Airway hyper-responsiveness

29

What does airway remodelling result in?

Fixed airway obstruction

30

What does airway remodelling involve?

Repair of airways by laying down collagen - permanent obstruction