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Flashcards in OB 1 Deck (93)
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1

What OB do in business

understanding organisations through examining individual characteristics, drivers and behaviours, and understanding group dynamics and organisational processes which ultimately influence organisational effectiveness.

2

What is the study of OB

The study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself

3

3 focuses of OB and what they do with information gained

individuals, groups and structure, and applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups and the effect of structure on behaviour in order to make organisations work more effectively.

4

OB includes (10)

personality and values
attitude and perception
motivation (theory and practice)
work design and work stress
group structure and processes
communication
conflict
leader behaviour and power
organisational culture
change processes

5

idea of complementing Intuition with systematic study (3)

Behaviour is generally predictable. The systematic study of behaviour is a means to making reasonably accurate predictions.
We can improve our predictive ability by supplementing intuition with a more systematic approach.
Systematic study allows us to look at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence

6

What to understand about people and what not to do (2)

Don’t generalise, bring in different perspectives
Different actions have different consequences and every individual is capable of producing different things

7

Four factors of influence (on an individuals behaviour and performance) MARS model + e=

Motivation
Ability
Role perception
-
Situational factors

->behaviour and results

8

Internal forces within a person that affect voluntary behaviour 3

direction: where to steer effort
intensity: amount of effort
persistence: continuing effort

9

Factors of employee ability 2

Natural aptitudes (talents) and learned capabilities (physical and mental skills and knowledge) required to successfully complete a task
Competencies - personal characteristics that lead to superior performance

10

factors of Role Perceptions 3

How clearly people understand their job duties:
specific duties and consequences
relative importance of tasks and performance
preferred behaviours to accomplish tasks

11

Factors of situational factors

Conditions beyond the employee’s immediate control that constrain or facilitate behaviour and performance:
time
budget
work facilities
situation

12

types of individual behaviour (behaviour and results) 5

task performance
organisational citizenship
Counter productive behaviour
Joining/staying with the organisation
Maintaining attendance

13

Predictor of most forms of behaviour +def

personality

Personality is most often described in terms of the measurable traits a person exhibits.

14

Values v personality

Values
Evaluative
‘Ought to do’
Nurture

Personality
Subjective
‘Tend to do’
Nature & some nurture

15

Ethics 2

the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad.
Ethics or honesty is the most important characteristic that employees look for in a leader.

16

OB is the study of

what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. It is concerned with human behaviour at work and how aspects of the person (individual), the presence of others (team) and organisational systems (organisational) impact on behaviour.

17

what is perception

A process by which individuals organise and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

18

perceptual process 3

1. senses
2. Selective attention and emotional marker response
3. Attitudes and behaviours

19

Common shortcuts in judging others 6

Selective Perception
Stereotyping
Halo Effect
False-consensus Effect /‘similar to me’ Effect
Primacy Effect
Recency Effect

20

Overconfidence bias

The tendency to overestimate the probability that one’s judgment in arriving at a decision is correct.

21

Anchoring bias

A tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information.

22

Confirmation bias

The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments.

23

Availability bias

The tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them.

24

Escalation of commitment

An increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information.

25

Randomness error

The tendency of individuals to believe they can predict the outcome of random events.

26

Risk aversion

The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected pay-off.

27

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome.

28

Strategies to Improve Perceptions

Self-awareness of perceptual biases (by knowing that they exist)
Improving self-awareness (awareness training) – e.g. applying Johari Window
Meaningful interaction

29

Emotions def

(Strong) feelings deriving from one's mood / circumstances / relationships with others

30

Stress def 2

An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s wellbeing.
A physiological and psychological condition that prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions.
Eustress (a motivator) versus distress (a negative experience).