Nutrition and Diets Flashcards Preview

NCLEX-RN (1) Fundamentals > Nutrition and Diets > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition and Diets Deck (34)
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1

Which foods have calcium in them?

Foods with calcium:

  • greens: collard greens, broccoli, kale
  • bones: canned fish
  • dairy products: milk and cheese

Calcium intake prevents osteoporosis.

2

Which foods have sodium in them?

Foods with sodium are salty foods:

  • bacon
  • canned food
  • processed foods
  • table salt
  • bread
  • soy sauce

Too much sodium can lead to fluid retention.

3

Which foods have magnesium in them?

Foods with magnesium:

  • avocado
  • nuts
  • legumes
  • tofu

4

Which foods have potassium in them?

Foods with potassium:

  • bananas
  • oranges
  • tomatoes
  • potatoes
  • spinach

 

5

Which foods have phosphorous in them?

Foods with phosphorus:

  • meat
  • dairy
  • nuts

6

Which foods have carbohydrates in them?

Foods with carbohydrates are sugar and starches:

  • whole-grain carbs: oats, brown rice
  • refined carbs: cookies and cakes made with white flour

A diet high in refined carbs can contribute to obesity and diabetes mellitus.

7

Which foods have fat in them?

Foods with fat:

  • good fats: unsaturated fat: olive oil and nuts
  • bad fats: saturated fat: butter and fat from red meat

A diet high in bad fats can contribute to cardiac disease.

8

Which foods have fiber in them?

Foods with fiber:

  • fruits and vegetables
  • beans and legumes
  • grains

A diet high in fiber is very healthy.

9

Which foods have protein in them?

Foods with protein:

  • meat
  • dairy

Protein is very good for healing.

10

Which foods have vitamin C in them?

Foods with vitamin C:

  • citrus fruits

Vitamin C is good for healing.

11

Why are vitamin C and protein good for wound healing?

Both vitamin C and protein contain the building blocks for muscle and tissue growth

12

Which foods have folic acid in them?

Foods with folic acid:

  • green leafy vegetables

Folic acid prevents neural tube defects in fetus.

 

13

Which foods have iron in them?

Foods with iron:

  • meats
  • lentils and beans
  • spinach

Iron is the building blocks for red blood cells and is good for preventing anemia.

 

14

Which foods have vitamin K in them?

Foods with vitamin K:

  • green leafy vegetables

Vitamin K is the antidote to warfarin, an anticoagulant.

15

What foods have vitamin D in them?

Foods with vitamin D:

  • fortified milk and cereals

Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium.

16

What is an NPO diet?

NPO means nothing by mouth - no food or water.

It is commonly prescribed:

  • before some diagnostic tests and all surgeries
  • after abdominal surgery until bowel sounds come back

17

What is a clear liquid diet?

Clear liquid diet:

  • gelatin
  • hard candy
  • broth
  • coffee and tea
  • popsicles

It is indicated after many surgeries: check for bowel sounds first.

18

What is a full liquid diet?

Full liquid diet:

  • ice cream
  • milk
  • pudding
  • fruit and vegetable juice

It is indicated after the client has tolerated clear liquids.

19

What is a regular diet?

A regular diet is when the client has no restrictions on foods.

20

What is a soft diet?

Soft diet:

  • food needs to mashed or chopped like mashed potatoes

It is indicated for clients with difficulty chewing and swallowing.
 

21

What is a thickened liquids diet?

Thickened liquids diet:

  • fluids are thickened with a substance

It is indicated for those with difficulty swallowing, especially those that had a stroke or are elderly.

22

What is a fluid-restricted diet?

Fluid-restricted diet is a 24-hour restriction of:

  • 1000 mL or 
  • 1500 mL or 
  • 2000 mL

It is indicated for clients with heart failure or renal failure.

23

What is a renal diet?

Renal diet:

  • low in fluids, electrolytes (especially sodium, phosphorus, and potassium) and proteins

Kidneys can’t get rid of extra water or the toxins from the breakdown of protein and electrolytes.

24

What is a low purine/uric acid diet?

Low purine/uric acid diet is for clients with gout:

  • avoid foods such as meats, alcohol, and fish

These foods break down into purines and then uric acid which builds up toxins in the body.

25

What is a cardiac diet?

Cardiac diet:

  • low fat, low cholesterol, low sodium
  • high in fruits and veggies, whole-grains

This healthy diet prevents the build-up of plaque on arteries which can contribute to cardiac disease.

26

What is a fat-restricted diet?

Fat-restricted diet is for malabsorption diseases of the:

  • liver, gallbladder or pancreas

The organs are unable to release the enzymes that breakdown fat.

27

What is a diabetic diet?

Diabetic diet is for clients with diabetes mellitus:

  • low in sugar and refined carbohydrates

The pancreas doesn't release enough insulin to transport glucose into cells. 

28

What is a low-fiber diet?

Low fiber diet is for inflammatory bowel diseases.

Low fiber prevents diarrhea.

29

What is a high fiber diet?

High fiber diet is for preventing constipation.

Fiber prevents constipation by adding bulk.

30

What is a high-calorie, high-protein diet for?

High-calorie, high-protein diet:

  • for debilitating diseases like cancer, burns, and COPD

Extra calories are needed because the body burns off calories quickly.