Which foods have calcium in them?
Foods with calcium:
- greens: collard greens, broccoli, kale
- bones: canned fish
- dairy products: milk and cheese
Calcium intake prevents osteoporosis.
Which foods have sodium in them?
Foods with sodium are salty foods:
- canned food
- processed foods
- table salt
- soy sauce
Too much sodium can lead to fluid retention.
Which foods have magnesium in them?
Foods with magnesium:
Which foods have potassium in them?
Foods with potassium:
Which foods have phosphorous in them?
Foods with phosphorus:
Which foods have carbohydrates in them?
Foods with carbohydrates are sugar and starches:
- whole-grain carbs: oats, brown rice
- refined carbs: cookies and cakes made with white flour
A diet high in refined carbs can contribute to obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Which foods have fat in them?
Foods with fat:
- good fats: unsaturated fat: olive oil and nuts
- bad fats: saturated fat: butter and fat from red meat
A diet high in bad fats can contribute to cardiac disease.
Which foods have fiber in them?
Foods with fiber:
- fruits and vegetables
- beans and legumes
A diet high in fiber is very healthy.
Which foods have protein in them?
Foods with protein:
Protein is very good for healing.
Which foods have vitamin C in them?
Foods with vitamin C:
- citrus fruits
Vitamin C is good for healing.
Why are vitamin C and protein good for wound healing?
Both vitamin C and protein contain the building blocks for muscle and tissue growth.
Which foods have folic acid in them?
Foods with folic acid:
- green leafy vegetables
Folic acid prevents neural tube defects in fetus.
Which foods have iron in them?
Foods with iron:
- lentils and beans
Iron is the building blocks for red blood cells and is good for preventing anemia.
Which foods have vitamin K in them?
Foods with vitamin K:
- green leafy vegetables
Vitamin K is the antidote to warfarin, an anticoagulant.
What foods have vitamin D in them?
Foods with vitamin D:
- fortified milk and cereals
Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium.
What is an NPO diet?
NPO means nothing by mouth - no food or water.
It is commonly prescribed:
- before some diagnostic tests and all surgeries
- after abdominal surgery until bowel sounds come back
What is a clear liquid diet?
Clear liquid diet:
- hard candy
- coffee and tea
It is indicated after many surgeries: check for bowel sounds first.
What is a full liquid diet?
Full liquid diet:
- ice cream
- fruit and vegetable juice
It is indicated after the client has tolerated clear liquids.
What is a regular diet?
A regular diet is when the client has no restrictions on foods.
What is a soft diet?
- food needs to mashed or chopped like mashed potatoes
It is indicated for clients with difficulty chewing and swallowing.
What is a thickened liquids diet?
Thickened liquids diet:
- fluids are thickened with a substance
It is indicated for those with difficulty swallowing, especially those that had a stroke or are elderly.
What is a fluid-restricted diet?
Fluid-restricted diet is a 24-hour restriction of:
- 1000 mL or
- 1500 mL or
- 2000 mL
It is indicated for clients with heart failure or renal failure.
What is a renal diet?
- low in fluids, electrolytes (especially sodium, phosphorus, and potassium) and proteins
Kidneys can’t get rid of extra water or the toxins from the breakdown of protein and electrolytes.
What is a low purine/uric acid diet?
Low purine/uric acid diet is for clients with gout:
- avoid foods such as meats, alcohol, and fish
These foods break down into purines and then uric acid which builds up toxins in the body.
What is a cardiac diet?
- low fat, low cholesterol, low sodium
- high in fruits and veggies, whole-grains
This healthy diet prevents the build-up of plaque on arteries which can contribute to cardiac disease.
What is a fat-restricted diet?
Fat-restricted diet is for malabsorption diseases of the:
- liver, gallbladder or pancreas
The organs are unable to release the enzymes that breakdown fat.
What is a diabetic diet?
Diabetic diet is for clients with diabetes mellitus:
- low in sugar and refined carbohydrates
The pancreas doesn't release enough insulin to transport glucose into cells.
What is a low-fiber diet?
Low fiber diet is for inflammatory bowel diseases.
Low fiber prevents diarrhea.
What is a high fiber diet?
High fiber diet is for preventing constipation.
Fiber prevents constipation by adding bulk.
What is a high-calorie, high-protein diet for?
High-calorie, high-protein diet:
- for debilitating diseases like cancer, burns, and COPD
Extra calories are needed because the body burns off calories quickly.