Nutrient Digestion 1 Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Nutrient Digestion 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrient Digestion 1 Deck (63)
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1

What are the principle dietary constituents?

Carbohydrates

Protein

Fat

Vitamins

Minerals

Water

2

What are different classes of carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides

3

What are monosaccharides?

Hexose sugars (6C)

4

What are examples of monosaccharides?

Glucose

Galactose

Fructose

5

Where are monosaccharides absorbed?

Small intestine

6

What bond connects disaccharides?

Glycosidic bond

7

What and where are disaccharides broken down into monosaccharides?

By brush border enzymes in the small intestine

8

Why are all complex carbohydrates broken down into monosaccharides?

Only monosaccharides can be absorbed

9

What is lactose formed from?

Glucose and galactose

10

What enzyme breaks lactose down into glucose and galactose?

Lactase

11

What is sucrose formed from?

Glucose and fructose

12

What breaks sucrose down into glucose and fructose?

Sucrase

13

What is maltose formed from?

Glucose and glucose

14

What breaks maltose down into 2 glucose monomers?

Maltase

15

What are some examples of polysaccharides?

Starch

Cellulose

Glycogen

16

What is starch?

Plant storage form of glucose

17

What are some examples of starch?

a-amylose (glucose linked in straight chains)

Amylopectin (glucose chains highly branched)

 

18

What are glucose monomers linked by in starch?

a-1, 4 glycosidic bonds

19

What are a-1, 4 glycosidic bonds broken down by?

Amylases

20

What is cellulose?

Constituent of the plant cell wall

Unbranched linear chains of glucose monomers linked by B-1, 4 glycosidic bonds

21

What are B-1, 4 glycosidic bonds broken down by?

Cellulase

22

What is cellulose also known as?

Dietary fibre

23

Why is cellulose only broken down by bacteria and not enzyme?

Animals do not synthesis cellulase which is required to break down B-1, 4 glycosidic bonds

24

What is glycogen?

Animal storage form of glucose

25

How are glucose monomers linked in glycogen?

a-1, 4 glycosidic bonds

26

Where are maltase, sucrase and lactase found?

Brush border of the small intestine

27

What increases the surface area of epithelial cells?

Villi for absorption

28

What are the 2 membranes of epithelial cells?

Apical membrane facing the lumen of the gut

Basal and lateral membranes facing the blood circulation

29

What is transepithelial transport?

Travelling through both the apical and basal membranes of epithelial cells

30

What is transport from the lumen to the blood circulationa around the cells called?

Paracellular transport