Flashcards in NUTR Capstone - Exam #1 Deck (150)
What is the AND Code of Ethics?
-American Dietetic Association updated the 1999 code of ethics in 2009;
-“19 principles to guide dietetics professionals in their conduct, commitments and obligations to self, client, society, and the profession.”
What are the AND (ADA) values for the Code of Ethics?
1. Customer Focus;
4. Social Responsibility
What is Customer Focus?
-Meets the needs and exceeds expectations of internal and external customers;
-Principles 5, 9
What is Integrity?
-Acts ethically with accountability for life-long learning and commitment to excellence;
What is Innovation?
Embraces change with creativity and strategic thinking
What is Social Responsibility?
-Makes decisions with consideration for inclusivity as well as environmental, economic and social implication;
-Principles 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
When does an ethical researcher practice ethical behavior?
-An ethical researcher practices ethical behavior from the beginning to the end of the study;
1. Design of a study;
2. Collection of data;
3. Analysis of data;
4. Publication of the findings
What are possible Errors in Research?
- Human errors → Honest mistakes;
- Fraud → Intentional deception or misrepresentation
What is good ethical design, conduct and analysis of a research study?
-A well-crafted research design minimizes errors;
-Confidentiality of medical and personal information is essential;
-The protocol should be carefully followed by all members of the research team and the data carefully collected, recorded, and stored.
What makes an Ethical Presentation and Interpretation of Research?
-Practice honesty, truthfulness and full disclosure.;
-Present the “truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.”;
-Use the best statistical technique to answer the question (driven by the original research question and hypothesis).;
-Present the study limitations.
What makes Ethics in Publication?
-Peer review helps prevent poor research and fraudulent information from being published;
-All listed authors are expected to have contributed to the publication;
-An author’s conflict of interest must be disclosed.
What are Common Research Errors?
5. Errors of data distortion and overgeneralization;
6. Errors in authorship and conflict of interest
What are Sampling Errors?
Study sample does not represent the actual sample
What are Non-Coverage Errors?
A sample that excludes some individuals
What are Nonresponse Errors?
A sample with a low response rate or loss of subjects to follow-up
What are Measurement Errors?
Use of slanted questions and/or use of instruments that lack reliability and validity
What is the Nuremberg Code of 1947?
-10 principles that must be followed in human experimentation;
-First established the requirement for INFORMED CONSENT.
What is the Declaration of Helsinki?
-12 basic principles to use when submitting experimental protocols;
-This idea lead to the genesis of the INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB).
What is the Belmont Report?
-Issued by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (President’s commission formed in 1974);
-Three basic principles upheld in the Belmont Report are:
1. Respect for persons,
2. Beneficence, and
What is the Belmont Report establish are the roles of the IRB?
-Protect rights of subjects;
-Demand non-coerced consent, confidentiality, protection of privacy, equity in subject selection, autonomous right of free choice including right of subject to terminate participation without penalty and termination of the research project at any point if the data warrants such action
What US Legislation
-IRBs are governed by TITLE 45 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS PART 46;
-Included in the National Research Act of 1974.
What is the National Research Act of 1974?
The Act defined IRBs and put the regulation of the IRB under the Office of Human Research Protection within the Department of Health and Human Services.
What is the Institutional Review Board (IRB)?
-The IRB is an independent ethics committee or ethical review board.;
-Made up of a variety of members from different backgrounds;
-This committee is formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans;
-Their number one priority is to protect human subjects from physical or psychological harm.
What types of studies are reviewed by the IRB?
3. Full Review
What are the LSU IRBs?
Both LSU and the LSU AgCenter have IRB committees;
What makes up the LSU AgCenter IRB?
1. IRB Forms =
-Application for Exemption;
-Regular application (Expedited or Full Review)
2. IRB members
What is the required NIH certification regarding human research studies?
"Protecting Human Research Participants Certificate"
What are 3 Guiding Principles used in Human Research?
1. Respect for persons
Why is research needed?
1. Objectively measure complex environments
2. Rigorously test hypotheses and compare and evaluate of the outcome of procedures, treatments, and protocols
3. Carefully examine associations/relationships
→ “Generates New Information or Knowledge