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Flashcards in Nucleosynthesis Deck (32)
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1

What is Olbers paradox

Asks why the sky is so black at night

2

What was TBBT originally called

Cosmic egg hypothesis

3

Define Hubble Constant

The velocity of the universe expansion, which can be used to trace backwards how old the universe is

4

How did Hubble learn that he universe was expanding

He observed that light from distant stars was longer in wavelength, indicating that the source was moving away

5

Why were no elements besides He and H made at the big bang

No pressure, just immense heat exploding out ward. Did not allow for three protons to slam into another

6

How were heavier elements (up to Fe) created?

In the cores of stars

7

How were elements heavier than Fe created

In supernovas, where massive pressure and heat were readily available

8

99% of the solar system mass is found where?

The sun

9

How are we able to determine the composition of the sun

We examine the spectrums the sun generate, and look for black lines at certain places in the spectrum, indicative of certain elements

10

What are the namesof the lines in the spectrum that are indicative of some elments

Fraunhofer lines

11

Define refractory

High melting and boiling points

12

Define volatile

very low melting and boiling points

13

what is the molecule that serves as the backbone for most minerals

silica tetrahedron

14

What is the nebular hypothesis

the solar system was formed by a nebula that collapsed on itself into a swirling disk

15

2 supporting facts of the nebular hypothesis

1. all planets on same plane of orbit
2. The planets all rotate in the same direction

16

How do we know that the interior of the earth has metal rich core

Magma deposits from the mid oceanic rift

17

Difference between Jovian and refractory planets

Jovian consist primarily of volatile material

18

How do we deterine mass of planets

Judged from their velocity

19

What are chondrites

Meteors that contain condrules

20

What are chondrules

Drops of molten metal that cooled, not found naturally on earth

21

What are achondrites

meteors that do not contain chondrules

22

how the achondrites are made

Early in the solar system, the basaltic and iron meteorites formed by differentiation of mass into planetesimals that were hot and molten. Subsequent solidification and break up of these guys resulted in achondrites of differing ingredients.

23

The universe is thought to be expanding because

the light from distant galaxies exhibits a redshift

24

During Big Bang nucleosynthesis, most of the hydrogen and helium in the universe is
thought to have been generated—but not much else—because

the temperature dropped too fast

25

The Sun’s composition is best determined by analyzing

Fraunhofer lines

26

The average composition of terrestrial planets is best determined by analyzing

chondrites

27

The solar system’s composition is best determined by analyzing

Fraunhofer lines

28

What stems the gravitational collapse of a star?

Pressure created by the escape of heat from nuclear fusion.

29

Stellar nucleosynthesis involves

a) nuclear fusion
b) temperatures of tens of millions of degrees Centigrade
c) the generation of elements as heavy as iron
d) the production of the heat that stems gravitational collapse of the star

30

iron limit exists because

once iron starts to form in a star, the “fuel” for nuclear fusion starts to run out