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Flashcards in Nuclear Chemistry Deck (49)
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1

What are penetrating rays emitted by a radioactive source called?

Radiation

2

What is a gas filled metal tube used to detect radiation?

Geiger Counter

3

What are changes in the structure of DNA that fuels evolution?

Mutations

4

What is the SI unit for measuring the amount you are exposed to ionizing radiation called?

Gray

5

What is a relatively constant level of natural radiation?

Background radiation

6

What contains two protons and two neutrons and has a double positive charge?

Alpha Particle

7

What device uses a phosphor to detect radiation?

Scintillation Counter

8

What is the time required for half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation and to decay?

Half-Life

9

What happens when the nuclei of certain isotopes are bombarded with neutrons splitter the nucleus into smaller fragments?

Fission

10

What is a control method for neutrons that involves decreasing the number of slow neutrons?

Neutron Absorption

11

What is the process that uranium gives off rays?

Radioactivity

12

What is a radioactive substance because they have unstable nuclei?

Radioisotope

13

What is radiation that carries energy and potential harm and causes electrons to be ejected from atoms and molecules forming ions?

Ionizing Radiation

14

What are radioisotopes used to study chemical reactions and molecular structures?

Tracers

15

What are rods of cadmium that are used to increase or decrease the amount of energy produced?

Control Rods

16

What do we use to measure the ionizing effect of living organisms?

REM

17

What is the number of ionizations within a given volume?

Radiation Density

18

What is the cancer of the white blood cells?

Leukemia

19

What happens when two nuclei combine to produce a nucleus of heavier mass?

Fusion

20

What is a disease where cell growth and metabolism is out of control?

Cancer

21

What consists of fast-moving electrons formed by the decomposing of a neutron of an atom?

Beta Radiation

22

What are atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons?

Isotopes

23

What process is an unstable nucleus that loses energy by emitting radiation?

Radioactive Decay

24

What unit expresses the absorbed dose of radiation?

RAD

25

What process slows down the neutrons so that they can be captured by the reactor fuel to continue the chain reaction?

Neutron Moderation

26

What are pellets of Uranium used to make energy?

Fuel Rods

27

What is electromagnetic radiation in the visible and lower energy regions that is not harmful?

Nonionizing Radiation

28

What is very harmful electromagnetic radiation with no mass and no electrical charge, with a very high frequency and small wavelength?

Gamma Radiation

29

What is the quantity of radiation received?

Radiation Dosage

30

What is a device that consists of several layers of photographic film covered with black lightproof paper encased in a plastic or metal holder?

Film Badge