What philosophical school influenced the leaders of the American Revolution?
The leaders of the American Revolution, such as Washington, Jefferson, and Adams, were influenced by the writings of Enlightenment philosophers, such as John Locke.
The Declaration of Independence opens with language similar to that from Locke's Two Treatises of Government. Meanwhile, the Constitution's notion of balance of power derives from Montesquieu.
What caused the outbreak of the American Revolution?
After 1763, the English government established taxes on the American colonists to pay the cost of the French and Indian War and to fund the British Army forces protecting the colonists.
Irritated that they were being taxed without their consent, the American colonists sent missives to the British government and, when these were refused, broke out into open rebellion.
Why were the American forces able to achieve victory in the American Revolution?
There were many roots for American victory in the Revolution. The war was unpopular in England, and Britain never dispatched the full might of the British Army to America.
The British supply line also stretched across the Atlantic, while the Americans were fighting close to home.
Finally, a timely alliance between the Americans and the French tilted the balance against England, and peace was declared in 1783.
The American federal government has three branches. What are they?
The three branches are the executive (the President and his cabinet), the legislative (the House and the Senate), and the judicial (the Supreme Court and the lower federal courts). The Constitution established a divided government to ensure that no branch became too powerful.
The American Revolution and the Constitution served as ideals for democracy movements ranging from the French Revolution of 1789, the Atlantic revolutions of the 1810s and 1820s, and even Ho Chi Minh's efforts to oust the French from Vietnam in the 1950s.
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
Announced by President James Monroe in 1823, the Monroe Doctrine declared that European nations would not be allowed to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
While the Monroe Doctrine did ensure that most of the Western Hemisphere remained free of direct European control, the growth of U.S. power in the 19th century ensured that the region became part of the American sphere of influence.
What American purchase may have been the best real estate deal in history?
In 1803, the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, a territory of some 828,000 square miles, for $15 million. The purchase doubled the size of the United States overnight.
Manifest Destiny was an American belief that it was entitled to the entire North American landmass between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
The United States fought wars against both the Native American tribes and Mexico to assert control of most of North America and, by the 1850s, had most of the modern United States.
Between 1846 and 1848, Mexico fought a war with what power, eventually losing much of its territory?
Between 1846 and 1848, Mexico fought the Mexican-American War against the United States. Mexico sued for peace after U.S. forces captured Mexico City. In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico gave up most of what is today the Western United States.
What was the underlying cause of the American Civil War?
The underlying cause of the American Civil War was slavery, which had disappeared in the Northern United States, but remained prevalent in the South. In a bloody conflict that lasted from 1861 to 1865, the South and its economy was destroyed and slavery was outlawed.
What status did the British government grant Canada in 1867?
In 1867, the British government allowed Canada dominion status, meaning that Canada would be largely self-governing and have its own parliament and constitution.
The granting of dominion status followed a large series of lenient British policies in Canada and the merger of Upper Canada, Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. The British government followed the dominion model in Australia and New Zealand.
A large-scale slave revolt broke out in what Caribbean country in 1791?
In 1791, while France was in the midst of the French Revolution, a large slave revolt against the French rule broke out in Haiti. By 1793, French forces had been largely defeated by Haitian forces under Toussaint L'Ouverture.
How did the French respond to the Haitian Revolution?
Distracted by the French Revolution and large-scale European wars, the French initially did little to put down the Haitian Revolution.
In 1802, Napoleon dispatched troops to retake Haiti. The French troops captured Haitian leader L'Ouverture and sent him to France, but eventually 40,000 French troops died of yellow fever. The French returned home and Haiti became an independent nation.
What was the response in Latin America to Napoleon's invasion of Spain and Portugal?
With Spain under French control, the Spanish colonies in the Americas rose in revolt, a reaction to longstanding resentment at Spanish colonial policies that marginalized Creole populations.
While the Spanish revolts were bloody, Portugal's colony of Brazil faced a relatively smooth process to independence and was, for a short period, directly ruled by the ousted Portuguese monarchy.
Who was Simón Bolívar?
Simón Bolívar led many of the Central and South American nations in their wars of independence beginning in 1815.
A member of the Creole class in Venezuela, Bolívar led revolutions against Spanish authority in Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia, beginning in 1815.
After promising to protect the rights of creoles and emancipation to slaves in his 1815 Jamaica letter, Bolívar began to see success and by 1821 had freed Venezuela and Colombia.
What Bolívar ally emerged to lead revolutions against Spain in South America?
In 1816, José de San Martín, an ally of Simón Bolívar, led revolutions against Spain in South America, freeing Argentina, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay.
Gran Colombia was a union of the newly freed states of southern Central America and northern South America under the leadership of Simón Bolívar.
The new nation collapsed in 1831 after Bolívar resigned from leadership, eventually forming the nations of Venezuela, Ecuador, and New Granada (Colombia and Panama).
Why was it difficult to establish functioning republican governments in the Latin American states following their independence?
Unlike the United States, the Latin American states had little tradition of constitutional rule, meaning that concepts such as political rights and civil liberties had little meaning.
Further, throughout the 19th century, political strongmen, known as caudillos, seized control of many of the Latin American states, inhibiting the growth of representative government and provoking frequent civil wars.
What is monoculture?
Monoculture refers to the devotion of a country's or region's natural resources to the growth and export of a small set of products. For instance, in the 19th century, the American South's primary product was cotton.
The term "Banana Republic" refers to the countries of Latin America whose monocultural production was primarily related to fruit exports.
Who is Miguel Hidalgo?
Father Miguel Hidalgo was a Mexican priest who established the independence movement in Mexico in 1810. Although he was executed soon thereafter, Mexico eventually gained its independence in 1821.
What is a caudillo?
A caudillo is an independent leader who dominated local areas by force. Often times they would defy what the national government ordered them to do--sometimes taking over the national government itself.
Why didn't Latin America unify after their wars for independence?
Regional rivalries, economic comeptition, and political divisons made it impossible for them to unify. In addition to human emotions and error, there were significant geographical boundaries that prevented unification.
What is a strong man leader?
Very similar to caudillos, "strong man" leaders are dictators who rule by their own whims. Juan Manuel de Rosas in Argentina and Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in Mexico are two examples.
These dictators contributed to the general instability of Latin American society. Constitutions would be written by liberals or conservatives, but then strong man dictators would come and ignore the constitution, doing what they want.
What is positivism?
Positivism is a French philosophy based on observation and scientific approach to the problems facing society.
Who is Aguste Comte?
He is a French philosopher who founded the idea of positivism
How did positivism guide Latin American development?
Leaders in Latin American countries used the ideas of Comte and prioritized scientific and industrial development of the country above all else.
Countries like Mexico would allow wealthy industrial capitalists to build infrastructure in their countries, such as railroads, in the hopes that it would help their country to develop economically and scientifically.
What were some negative side effects to the positivist ideology in Latin America?
Often the government would take land away from the poor in an effort to develop the land even further. Positivist leaders in Latin America were eager to have the country develop economically, and in the process developed new forms of serfdom.