osmotic pressure of a solution
Osmotic pressure is the physical pressure necessary to prevent solvent from flowing across a permeable membrane from a hypertonic to a hypotonic solution.
The larger the concentration difference, the higher the osmotic pressure will be.
osmotic pressure of a solution
Π = iMRT
Π = the solution's osmotic pressure in atm
i = van't Hoff factor (number of expected ions)
M = the solution's molarity in mol/l
R = the ideal gas constant in L*atm / K*mol
T = the absolute temperature of the solution in K
At a constant temperature, how will the osmotic pressure of a 1M NaCl solution compare to that of a 1M CaCl2 solution?
The osmotic pressure of the CaCl2 solution will be higher.
This is due to CaCl2 having a van't Hoff factor of 3 (Ca+2, Cl-, Cl-) compared to 2 for NaCl (Na+, Cl-).
Since Π = iMRT, and M,R,T are all constant, the determining factor is i=3 > i=2.
How will increasing a solution's temperature change its osmotic pressure?
The osmotic pressure will be greater at a higher temperature.
Since Π = iMRT, and i,M,R are all constant, the determining factor is Tnew > Told
A non-ideal solution is one which does not follow Raoult's Law. Non-ideal solutions can have pressures either greater or less than those predicted by Raoult's Law.
Ex: A solution with a large attraction between solute and solvent, such as salt water, will have a lower pressure than that predicted by Raoult's Law.
What is the total vapor pressure above a mixture of liquids A and B?
Ptot = PA + PB
= (XA * P0A )+ (XB * P0B)
XA = mole fraction of liquid A
XB = mole fraction of liquid B
P0A = vapor pressure of pure A
P0B= vapor pressure of pure B
How soluble are the salts of alkali metal cations such as Li+, Na+, K+, etc.?
All salts of alkali metals are highly soluble.
How soluble are the salts of the ammonium cation such as NH4+?
All ammonium salts are highly soluble.
What determines solubilities of the salts of alkaline earth and transition metal cations such as Ca+2, Mg+2, Fe+3, etc.?
Salts of alkaline earth metals and transition metals have solubilities that vary based on the anion that the cation is paired with in the salt.
Highly soluble anions like chloride (Cl-) will make soluble salts with alkaline earth and transition metals. Insoluble anions like phosphate (PO4-3) will make insoluble salts with these cations.
Which anions make salts which are always fully soluble?
The following anions make salts which are always soluble:
- Nitrate (NO3-)
- Chlorate (ClO3-)
- Perchlorate (ClO4-)
- Acetate (CH3COO-)
What is the solubility of salts made with halogen anions Cl-, Br-, I-?
Halogen anion salts are soluble UNLESS the cation is Ag+, Pb2+, or Hg22+.
What is the solubility of salts made with the sulfate anion, SO42-?
Sulfate anion salts are soluble UNLESS the cation is Ag+, Pb2+, Hg22+, Ca2+, Sr2+, or Ba2+.
Which anions make salts which are generally insoluble?
The following anions make salts which are generally insoluble:
- Hydroxide (OH-)
- Carbonate (CO3-2)
- Phosphate (PO4-3)
- Sulfite (SO3-2)
- Chromate (CrO42-)
- Sulfide (S2-)
Exception: salts with these anions paired with alkali metal (such as NaOH) or ammonium cations (such as (NH4)2CO3) will be soluble.