Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (294)
Difficulty recognizing sounds
Difficulty naming body parts
Ability to only recognize one object in a visual field at a time
Ability to see details, but not the whole
Caused by damage to brain regions involved with early processing of stimuli - stimuli not perceived correctly. Ability to identify perceived object intact, but stimuli sent downstream for identification is jumbled.
Brain damage to later stage of ID process. Objects perceived correctly, but have difficulty identifying object. (May be able to copy object, but unable to accurately name it).
Face is processed normally at first then takes on image of werewolf
Rapid hart rate of 100+ BPM.
BPM of less than 60
Sx of Delirium
Sudden change in cognitive functioning, memory impairments, disruption in language, disorientation and confusion to time and place, reduced alertness, increased distractibility, perceptual disturbances such as hallucinations, changes in mood and personality. Usually associated with underlying disease.
Difference between dementia and delirium?
Delirium is reverseable while dementia is not.
Differences between dementia and pseudodementia
Demential is progressive, pseudodementia can improve by treating underlying psychiatric condition. Dementia is gradual, pseudodementia has more sudden onset. Dementia caused by braindegeneration, pseudodementia related to changes in serotenergic and nonadrenergic activity
ACH effect on CNS
Low levels of ACH found in individuals with Alzheimer's and associated with confusion/memory loss. ACH agonists my facilitate increased attention, concentration, and memory.
ACH effect on PNS
Found in ganglia. Has inhibitory effect on PNS (relaxed muscle tone, decreased heart rate, normal digestion)
How ACH plays a role in Parkinson's Disease
Associated with increase in ACh levels and decrease in dopamine. Treatments aim to restore balance via DA agonists and ACh agonists.
DA and schizophrenia
Controversial because research has not been conclusive concerning DA's role.
Anorexia and serotonin
Serotonin plays a role in appetite regulation. Anorexic brain shows a lower serotonin/dopamine ratio
Brain regions associated with anxiety
Amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulated cortes, HPA-axis, hippocampus and midbrain.
Neurotransmitters and hormones associated with anxiety
Increased noradrenergic function, decreased number of GABA receptors or neuromodulator that blocks these sites, elevated levels of cortisol
Brain abnormalities of ADHD
Right anterior cingulate cortex (focuses attn), right prefrontal cortex (impulse control and decision making), D4 and D5 receptors.
Repeating words that have been generated by self
Neural correlates of autism
Abnormal activity in fusiform gyrus (located in ventral temporal lobe and related to face recognition), abnormal activity in amygdala (subcortical bilateral brain region, related to detecting emotional salience of stimuli)
Catecholamine Hypothesis of Depression
Reduced levels of norepinephrin cause depression and higher levels cause elation
Chronic pain and gate control theory proposed by:
Melzack and Wall in 1965
Best drugs for chronic pain?
Lazarus' three forms of cognitive appraisal
Primary appraisal - evaluation of the salience of an event.
Secondary appraisal - evaluation of one's ability to cope
Re-appraisal - monitoring of a situation as necessary and modification of one's primary and secondary appraisals.
Topomax; Mood stabilizer
Garbitril; mood stabilizer
Ritalin and concerta; psychostimulants