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Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (294)
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206

Auditory agnosia

Difficulty recognizing sounds

207

Autopagnosia

Difficulty naming body parts

208

Simultagnosia

Ability to only recognize one object in a visual field at a time

209

Form Agnosia

Ability to see details, but not the whole

210

Apperceptive agnosia

Caused by damage to brain regions involved with early processing of stimuli - stimuli not perceived correctly. Ability to identify perceived object intact, but stimuli sent downstream for identification is jumbled.

211

Associative agnosia

Brain damage to later stage of ID process. Objects perceived correctly, but have difficulty identifying object. (May be able to copy object, but unable to accurately name it).

212

Paraprosopia

Face is processed normally at first then takes on image of werewolf

212

Tachycardia

Rapid hart rate of 100+ BPM.

213

Bradycardia

BPM of less than 60

214

Sx of Delirium

Sudden change in cognitive functioning, memory impairments, disruption in language, disorientation and confusion to time and place, reduced alertness, increased distractibility, perceptual disturbances such as hallucinations, changes in mood and personality. Usually associated with underlying disease.

215

Difference between dementia and delirium?

Delirium is reverseable while dementia is not.

216

Differences between dementia and pseudodementia

Demential is progressive, pseudodementia can improve by treating underlying psychiatric condition. Dementia is gradual, pseudodementia has more sudden onset. Dementia caused by braindegeneration, pseudodementia related to changes in serotenergic and nonadrenergic activity

217

ACH effect on CNS

Low levels of ACH found in individuals with Alzheimer's and associated with confusion/memory loss. ACH agonists my facilitate increased attention, concentration, and memory.

218

ACH effect on PNS

Found in ganglia. Has inhibitory effect on PNS (relaxed muscle tone, decreased heart rate, normal digestion)

219

How ACH plays a role in Parkinson's Disease

Associated with increase in ACh levels and decrease in dopamine. Treatments aim to restore balance via DA agonists and ACh agonists.

220

DA and schizophrenia

Controversial because research has not been conclusive concerning DA's role.

221

Anorexia and serotonin

Serotonin plays a role in appetite regulation. Anorexic brain shows a lower serotonin/dopamine ratio

222

Brain regions associated with anxiety

Amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulated cortes, HPA-axis, hippocampus and midbrain.

223

Neurotransmitters and hormones associated with anxiety

Increased noradrenergic function, decreased number of GABA receptors or neuromodulator that blocks these sites, elevated levels of cortisol

224

Brain abnormalities of ADHD

Right anterior cingulate cortex (focuses attn), right prefrontal cortex (impulse control and decision making), D4 and D5 receptors.

225

Palilalia

Repeating words that have been generated by self

226

Neural correlates of autism

Abnormal activity in fusiform gyrus (located in ventral temporal lobe and related to face recognition), abnormal activity in amygdala (subcortical bilateral brain region, related to detecting emotional salience of stimuli)

227

Catecholamine Hypothesis of Depression

Reduced levels of norepinephrin cause depression and higher levels cause elation

228

Chronic pain and gate control theory proposed by:

Melzack and Wall in 1965

229

Best drugs for chronic pain?

SNRIs

230

Lazarus' three forms of cognitive appraisal

Primary appraisal - evaluation of the salience of an event.
Secondary appraisal - evaluation of one's ability to cope
Re-appraisal - monitoring of a situation as necessary and modification of one's primary and secondary appraisals.

231

toprimate

Topomax; Mood stabilizer

232

Tiagabine

Garbitril; mood stabilizer

233

Methylphenidate

Ritalin and concerta; psychostimulants

234

Dextroamphetamine

Dexedrine; psychostimulant; ADHD