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Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (294)
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176

ASIA E

Normal neurologica function despite presence of SCI

177

Hemiplegia

paralysis of one half of the body, most common in victims of stroke

178

Paresis

weakening in part of body; less severe than overall paralysis

179

Hemiparesis

half of body is weakened

180

GCS scores

.13 = mild TBI; 9-12 = moderate TBI, ,8 = severe

181

Agonist

Medications that enhance synaptic transmission and increase post-synaptic effects

182

Antagonists

Medications that inhibit synaptic transmission and decrease post-synaptic effects

183

Competitive Agonists

Increase post-synaptic effects by mimicking the neurotransmitter's effects

184

Competitive antagonist

Occupies the binding site and prevents the neurotransmitter from binding, which results in reduced transmission and activity

185

Noncompetitive agonists and antagonists

Typically do not share structural similarities with neurotransmitter because they bind to different sites; when bound to a receptor site they alter its shape which changes receptor's affinity for the neurotransmitter

186

SSRI's are used for

Serotonergic imbalances, depression, some anxiety disorders, OCD, aggressive behavior, irritable-bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and eating disorders (bulimia associated with low serotonin)

187

Side effects of SSRIs

Dry mouth, vivid dreams, constipation, sexual dysfunction, nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, changes in appetite, weight loss or gain, suicidality, and liver or kidney impairment.

188

SNRIs used to treat:

Anxiety disorders, ADHD, and nueropathic pain. Side effects similar to SSRIs

189

Side effects of TCAs

Generally more severe than SSRIs. Dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty with urination, and hyperthermia. Other side effects include anxiety, drowsiness (somonlence), confusion, increased appetite, decreased sexual ability, and some cardiovascular effects

190

Serotonin Syndrome

SSNIs and MAOIs can cause this when taken in combo with SSRIx, tryptophan, illicit substances or some OTC (st. john's wort). Severe and potentially fatal condition, includes agitation, restlessness, rapid heart rate, dilated pupils, loss of muscle coordination, and cognitive symptoms (hallucination, confusion)

191

Antipsychotics block which receptors?

D2

192

Antipsychotic Side Effects

Anticholinergic side effects, adrenergic, histaminergic, EPS, dystonia, akathisia, Tardive Dyskenisia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome

193

Anticholinergic Side Effects

Dry mouth, difficulty urinating, constipation, blurry vision

194

Adrenergic Side Effects

Postural hypotension and sexual dysfunction

195

Histaminergic side effects

INcreased sedation and gradual weight gain

196

Extrapyramidal side effects

Due to interference with dopamine system; Parkinsonian-like symptoms, body rigidity

197

Dystonia

Acute; occurs within a few days of treatment onset, involuntary muscle contractions tha lead to postural abnormalities; difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), uncontrollable eye movements; blank stares (oculogyric crisis)

198

Akathisia

A sense of distress and restlessness; rocking back and forth, shuffling, pacing, or other repetitive movements.

199

Tardive Dyskinesia

Results from chronic antipsychotic use; sx include involuntary, uncontrollable, restless movements (facial grimaces, tongue protrusions, eye blinking, and limb movements)

200

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

Potentially fatal syndrome; sx include severe muscle rigidity and hyperthermia, diaphoresis, dysphagia, tremor, incontinence, changes in consciouness, mutism, tachycardia, elevated/labile blood pressure, leucytosis, and muscle injury; onset occurs within 4 weeks of beginning neuroleptic meds

201

Benzos used for:

GABA agonists results in CNS depression. Used for anxiety disorders (especially panic disorder), agitation, seizures, and muscle spasms

202

Benzo side effects

Sleepiness, confusion, impaired judgment, unsteadiness, and anterograde amnesia. Paradoxical effects such as increased anxiety or suicidality may occur.

203

What is the primary site of benzo action?

Amygdala

204

Opiate withdrawal

Dysphoria, anxiety, watering eyes, runny nose, yawning, sweating, restlessness, irritability, tremor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased blood pressure and heart rate, chills, cramps, and muscle aches. Can last anywhere from a week to 10 days and are usually not lethal.

205

Prosopagnosia

Difficulty recognizing faces