Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (294)
Normal neurologica function despite presence of SCI
paralysis of one half of the body, most common in victims of stroke
weakening in part of body; less severe than overall paralysis
half of body is weakened
.13 = mild TBI; 9-12 = moderate TBI, ,8 = severe
Medications that enhance synaptic transmission and increase post-synaptic effects
Medications that inhibit synaptic transmission and decrease post-synaptic effects
Increase post-synaptic effects by mimicking the neurotransmitter's effects
Occupies the binding site and prevents the neurotransmitter from binding, which results in reduced transmission and activity
Noncompetitive agonists and antagonists
Typically do not share structural similarities with neurotransmitter because they bind to different sites; when bound to a receptor site they alter its shape which changes receptor's affinity for the neurotransmitter
SSRI's are used for
Serotonergic imbalances, depression, some anxiety disorders, OCD, aggressive behavior, irritable-bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and eating disorders (bulimia associated with low serotonin)
Side effects of SSRIs
Dry mouth, vivid dreams, constipation, sexual dysfunction, nausea, drowsiness, dizziness, changes in appetite, weight loss or gain, suicidality, and liver or kidney impairment.
SNRIs used to treat:
Anxiety disorders, ADHD, and nueropathic pain. Side effects similar to SSRIs
Side effects of TCAs
Generally more severe than SSRIs. Dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty with urination, and hyperthermia. Other side effects include anxiety, drowsiness (somonlence), confusion, increased appetite, decreased sexual ability, and some cardiovascular effects
SSNIs and MAOIs can cause this when taken in combo with SSRIx, tryptophan, illicit substances or some OTC (st. john's wort). Severe and potentially fatal condition, includes agitation, restlessness, rapid heart rate, dilated pupils, loss of muscle coordination, and cognitive symptoms (hallucination, confusion)
Antipsychotics block which receptors?
Antipsychotic Side Effects
Anticholinergic side effects, adrenergic, histaminergic, EPS, dystonia, akathisia, Tardive Dyskenisia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Anticholinergic Side Effects
Dry mouth, difficulty urinating, constipation, blurry vision
Adrenergic Side Effects
Postural hypotension and sexual dysfunction
Histaminergic side effects
INcreased sedation and gradual weight gain
Extrapyramidal side effects
Due to interference with dopamine system; Parkinsonian-like symptoms, body rigidity
Acute; occurs within a few days of treatment onset, involuntary muscle contractions tha lead to postural abnormalities; difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), uncontrollable eye movements; blank stares (oculogyric crisis)
A sense of distress and restlessness; rocking back and forth, shuffling, pacing, or other repetitive movements.
Results from chronic antipsychotic use; sx include involuntary, uncontrollable, restless movements (facial grimaces, tongue protrusions, eye blinking, and limb movements)
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
Potentially fatal syndrome; sx include severe muscle rigidity and hyperthermia, diaphoresis, dysphagia, tremor, incontinence, changes in consciouness, mutism, tachycardia, elevated/labile blood pressure, leucytosis, and muscle injury; onset occurs within 4 weeks of beginning neuroleptic meds
Benzos used for:
GABA agonists results in CNS depression. Used for anxiety disorders (especially panic disorder), agitation, seizures, and muscle spasms
Benzo side effects
Sleepiness, confusion, impaired judgment, unsteadiness, and anterograde amnesia. Paradoxical effects such as increased anxiety or suicidality may occur.
What is the primary site of benzo action?
Dysphoria, anxiety, watering eyes, runny nose, yawning, sweating, restlessness, irritability, tremor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased blood pressure and heart rate, chills, cramps, and muscle aches. Can last anywhere from a week to 10 days and are usually not lethal.