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Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (294)
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121

Golgi Apparatus

Responsible for processing, sorting, packaging, and delivering proteins, lipids, and other materials manufactured by RER and SER

122

Mitochondria

Cell's "powerhouse"; where ATP, the cell's energy is manufactured. Only cell organelles that can self-replicate - contain their own DNA

123

Limbic System

AKA paleomammalian brain. Involved in basic mammalian bx and instinct. Related to regulation of fear and aggression; associated with bx related to motivation (hunger, sex); related to formation and storage of memories; AKA emotion center of brain (pleasure and fear)

124

Limbic System includes:

Amygdala, septum, hypothalamus; hippocampus; thalamus; olfactory cortex

125

Septum

Along with amygdala, involved in fear and aggression

126

Lesions of amygdala

Docility in animals

127

Stimulation of amygdala

Increased rage and predatory bx

128

Septal lesions in rats

"Septal rage" in which rat becomes extremely aggressive

129

Removal of amygdala in monkeys

Bilateral temporal lobectomy - mouthing of objects, increased tameness, hypersexuality, visual agnosia

130

Lesions in limbic system in humans

decrease in motivation, ability to focus on a task, decision making, startle response, and emotional reaction to both aversive and positive emotional stimuli; lack fight-or-flight

131

Areas in midbrain

Tectum (roof of midbrain); tegmentum (floor), cerebral penduncles (everything except tectum)

132

Superior colliculus

In midbrain; processes info related to visual stimuli and associated with eye mvmts

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Inferior Colliculus

Midbrain; recvs sensory info from ear and relays auditory stimuli

134

Substantia nigra

Midbrain; contains large number of DA=producing neurons, associated with voluntary mvmt and motor planning

135

Ventral Tegmental Area

Midbrain; involved with reward system of brain

136

Diseases associated with midbrain

Parkinsons and drug addiction

136

Mammilary Bodies

Located in diencephalon and thought to be involved in processing recognition memory. Sometimes categorized as part of hypothalamus

137

Posterior pituitary lobe

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, concentrates urine) and oxytocin (uterine and prostate gland contractions)

138

Lateral geniculate nucleus

Rcvs input from eyes; projects to primary visual cortex

138

Medial geniculate nucleus

Rcvs info from inner ear

138

Cerebellum's role in learning and memory

Contains memory cells that allow for learning new skills thru trial and error.

138

Characteristics of Huntington's

Progressive and fatal; caused by mutation of huntingtin gene (4h chromosome); autosomal (non sex-linked) and dominant. Life expectancy 10-25 yrs after onset of sx

138

Symptoms of huntington's

Rapid irregular jerky mvmts (known as chorea), "dancing" gait, facial grimacing; dementia, disorientation and confusion, personality changes, memory probs, agitation. Depression and irritability usually first sx seen.

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PKU symptoms

Mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, jerky mvmts in arms and legs, hyperactivity, stunted growth, unusual odor of urine and skin

140

Von Wildebrand Disease

Most common inherited bleeding disorder; autosomal; dominant

141

Symptoms of Von Wildebrand

Difficulty clotting after surgery or dental procedure; bruising; bleeding of the gums; frequent nose bleeds; extended bleeding times despite normal platelet counts.

142

Cerebral Palsey

Non-infectious and non-progressive, includes lifeling impairments in body mvmt and muscular coordination, present in infancy or early childhood

143

Symptoms of Cerebral Palsey

can be mild to severe; ataxia; muscle stiffness; increased muscle tone (spasticity); awkward gait; in severe cases, may be associtaed with increased drooling, LD, seizures, urinary and bowel probe, and hearing deficits

144

Treatment for CP

Physical therapy, occupational therapy, assistive devices (braces, walking aids, wheelchairs); medicines (to control seizures when present, decrease muscle tone, and improve constipation)

145

Four stages of HIV

Acute, asymptomatic, symptomatic, and crisis or late stage