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Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (294)
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91

Pancreas

has both exocrine and endocrine functions

92

Alpha waves

8-12 Hz; most observable during resting (awake) with eyes closed

93

Beta waves

13-30 Hz; occur when individual is awake and attentive

94

Theta

4-7 Hz; occur during transition from wakefulness to sleep

95

Delta

less than 4 hz; present during stage three sleep during transition from light to deep sleep

96

Explicit memory

Located in temporal lobe and include: hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex

97

Implicit memory

Basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen), globus padillus, thalamus, substantia nigra, and cerebellum

98

Alexithymia

Inability to express emotions, despite feeling them; persons with Kluver-Bucy syndrome are unable to feel emotions.

99

ACC

Invovled with processing cognitive information, emotion regulation,a nd autonomic control

100

dACC

superior to genu of corpus callosum; plays a role in cognitive function, including; executive function, response selection, negotiating conflict, and autonomic control; sensitive to task difficulty and novelty

101

rACC

located inferior to genu of corpus callosum; associated with emotional function; implicated in processing emotional information and regulating emotional response

102

Medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFCA

Interfaces with both cognitive and emotional systems. Thought to be involved w/distinguishing task-relevant info from task-irrelevant info.

103

Posterior Cingulate Cortex

pCC has been showns to relate to inhibition processes as well as engagement level during a task. Abnormal activity in subgenual cingulate cortex observed in depressed individuals

104

Basal Ganglia

Functions to inhibit actions that would interfere with smooth motor output of the intended action. Primary neurotransmitters are GABA and dopamine, but receive noradrenergic and serotenergic inputs as well.

105

Dysfunction of Basal Ganglia

Parkinson's, Huntington's, OCD, Tourette's, ADHD, and Cerebral Palsey

106

Reticular Activating System

Involved in regulating states of arousal and activity, and helps maintain circadian rhythm

107

Prosencephalon

Forebrain; becomes the telencephalon and diencephalon

108

Mesencephalon

Midbrain

109

Rhombencephalon

hindbrain; becomes the met encephalon and the myencephalon

110

Cerebral cortex

Outer most layer of the brain

111

Left hemisphere of brain

Dominant in most people; location of language functions; associated with analytical and rational thought; calculates, communicates, abstract cognitions, and makes exective decisions; processes info in right visual field; associated w/processing of positive emotions

112

Right hemisphere of brain

Associated with visual-spatial skills, creativity, nonverbal memory, and intuitive thought; allows us to perceive stimuli as a whole, facilitating out ability to read maps or draw sketches of 3D objects; negative emotions, particularly fear, anger, and pessimism; processes info in left visual field

113

Implication of lateralization of function after stroke

Depends on hemisphere affeccted; in left hemisphere more likely to affect language than right. In right occipital lobe, may result in disturbances in visual processing of info in left visual field.

114

Hemispatial neglect

AKA contralateral neglect; individual is unaware of info on one die of his or her body or environment; occurs most commonly after stroke to right parietal lobe (neglect is for left side). Most often associated with visual processing

115

Anosognosia

Unawareness of one's neurological symptoms

116

Corpus callosum

Bundle of axons that connects the hemispheres and allows for communication

117

Split Brain

the severing of corpus callosum; May be done to attempt to control epilepsy; Pts are only able to verbalize what they see in the right visual field (info in left field sent to right hemisphere where language is processed). If presented to left visual field, pt would not be able to verbalize but could point to what they saw.

118

Roger Sperry

Pioneer of split brain research. Nobel prize in 1981.

119

Anterior commisure

bundle of fibers that connects to the limbic systems in both hemispheres. Remains intact in split-brain pts. Allows for communication of rudimentary emotional stimuli (if violent movie presented to left visual field, pt would not be able to verbalize what was seen but may verbalize feeling afraid)

120

Ipsilateral

On the same side of the body. Smell and hearing are processed ipsilaterally.