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Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (294)
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61

Damage to frontal lobes

Difficulty interpreting feedback from the environment, perseverating on a response, risk taking, and non-compliance with rules, and impaired associated learning (external cues to guide behavior). Change in social behavior.

62

Left vs. right frontal lobe

Left - controlling language related movement. Right - non-verbal abilities. Not an absolute; both sides influence verbal and non-verbal movement.

63

Frontal lobes

Emotional control and home to our personality. Involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior. Most common region of injury in mild-mod brain injury.

64

Medulla oblongata

This structure is the caudal most part of the brain stem, between pons and spinal cord. Responsible for maintaining vital body functions, such as breathing and heart rate.

65

Pons

Part of met encephalon in hindbrain. Involved in motor control and sensory analysis. Info enters here first. Has parts that are important for levels of consciousness and sleep. Some of pons linked to cerebellum (mvmt and posture)

66

Cerebral peduncle

Anterior part of midbrain, huge bundles of axons traveling from cerebral cortex through brain stem. These fibers (along with other structures) are important for voluntary motor function.

67

Midbrain

AKA mesencephalon, rostral part of brain stem. Includes tectum and tegmentum. Involved in vision, hearing, eye mvmt, and body mvmt.

68

Hippocampus

Portion of cerebral hemispheres in basal medial part of temporal lobe. Important for learning and memory (short term-->long-term) and recalling spatial relationships.

69

Amygdala

Part of telencephalon, located in temporal lobe; involved in memory, emotion, and fear. Beneath surface of the front, medial part of temporal lobe; causes bulge called the uncus

70

Hypthalamus

Part of diencephalon, ventral to thalamus. Involved in homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythms, and control of autonomic nervous system. Also controls pituitary.

71

Thalamus

Deep in the forebrain at the topmost portion of diencephalon. Sensory and motor functions. Almost all sensory info enters it where neurons send info to cortex. All senses except olfaction synapses here. Last relay site before info reaches cerebral cortex.

72

Components of the brain stem

Midbrain, pons, and medulla

73

Limbic System

"Emotional brain:. Buried within cerebrum. Contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.

74

What is the "little brain"

The cerebellum. 2 hemispheres. Associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.

75

What is the neocortex?

Bulk fo the cerebrum: nerve cells that make up the gray surface of the brain. White nerve cells underneath carry signals between nerve cells and other areas of the brain and body.

76

Pharmacokinetics

What the body does to the drug

77

Pharmacodynamics

What the drug does to the body

78

EEG

Measure brain waved during sleep; monitor anesthesia; contributes to the dx of epilepsy; poor spatial resolution/localization

79

MEG

Better spatial resolution than EEG; contributes dx of epilepsy; pre-surgical planning

80

CT

Uses x-rays to generate structural brain image; relatively low resolution; detects large brain tumor

81

PET

Measures metabolic brain activity; used to study cognitive processes; detects brain legions via the detection of abnormal functional activity

82

MRI

Higher structural resolution than CT; detection of brain tumors and other brain abnormalities

83

fMRI

variant of MRI; measures BOLD signal; provides poor temporal resolution relative to EEG measures

84

Poor performance on Stroop

Associated with frontal lobe lesions, including those locacted in the inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex

85

Adrenal glands

On top of kidneys; consist of adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla; synthesizes corticosteroids, including cortisol. Testosterone, androgen, and aldosterone secreted by adrenal cortex. Responds to HPA.

86

Adrenal medulla

Contains chromaffin cellls; synthesizes catecholamine hormones, adrenalin, noradrenalin; involved in fight or flight

87

HPA Axis

Stress manifested by activation of HPA; System is modulated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). CRF released by hypothalamus. CRF travels to anterior pituitary gland where it activated production of adrenal corticotropin hormone

88

ACTH

Travels thru blood stream to adrenal cortex; stimulates adrenal cortex ro release cortisol

89

Cortisol

Predominant hormone involved in stress. Hypercortisolemia (chronically inflated cortisol levels) associated with structural and functional brain damage and lower resistance to infections

90

Pineal gland

regulates the circadian rhythm thru production of melatonin