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Flashcards in Neurology & Respiration Deck (46)
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1

Speech Process

Not an isolated phenomena

Goal is to produce meaningful sound combinations

Speaker uses air to make a number of sounds that vary

Sounds are produced by regulating the airstream

Regulation is brought about by movements of the articulators

Movements result of muscle contractions controlled by nerve impulses

Controlled by the nervous system

2

CNS



Brain
Spinal cord

3

PNS

Cranial nerves
Spinal nerves

4

Neurons

Specialized to receive, conduct and transmit nerve impulses

Transmit information in the form of nerve impluses: From cell to cell, From cell to muscle, gland etc.

Assume many shapes and lengths

Always have a cell body and extensions that receive and transmit impulses

The rate of nerve impulse conduction depends on the presence or absence of myelin


5

Efferent

Motor Neuron

carry impulses from the CNS to the periphery

6

Afferent

Sensory neuron

carry impulses from the peripheral sense organs to the CNS

7

Myelin

Fatty deposit surrounding nerves/neurons

The term white matter (myelin has a fatty, whitish appearance) is often used to describe parts of the nervous system

8

Neuron Conduction

Conduction from one neuron to another involves the release of chemicals at the synapse

Some chemicals facilitate the firing of the next cell and others inhibit firing

The chemicals act to bridge the small space between the fibers of the terminal arbor of the transmitting neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron

There are approximately 1 trillion such synapses in the human brain

9

Dendrites




receive information from axons

many arms

surround cell body

10

Axon terminals

transmits and establishes contact with another cell

11

Synapse

site of contact

12

Axon

conducts information to dendrites

one long "tail"

13

Parts of the Brain

Cerebrum - larger, front portion
Cerebellum - back, small, above brain stem
Brain stem

14

Cerebrum

Two hemispheres

Four lobes:
Frontal
Temporal
Parietal
Occipital

15

Frontal Lobe Functions

(Executive Functioning, thinking; Broca's)
Behavior
Abstract thought
Problem solving
Attention
Creative thought
Some emotion
Intellect
Reflection
Skilled movements
Physical reaction
Judgment
Initiative
Inhibition
Coordination of movements
Generalized and mass movements
Some eye movements
Sense of smell
Muscle movements
Libido

16

Occipital Lobe Functions

Vision
Reading

17

Parietal Lobe Functions

(Mostly Sensory Information)

Sense of touch
Appreciation of form through touch
Response to internal stimuli
Sensory combination and comprehension
Some language and reading functions
Some visual functions

18

Temporal Lobe Functions

(Hearing, Language Processing)

Auditory memories
Some hearing
Visual memories
Some vision pathways
Other memory
Music
Fear
Some language
Some speech
Some behavior and emotions
Sense of identity

19

Cerebellum

Little Brain

Balance
Posture
Cardiac, respiratory

20

Brain Stem

Motor and sensory pathway to body and face

Unconscious Life functions
Vital centers: cardiac, respiratory, vasomotor

21

Left hemisphere

controls movement on the right side of the body

produce and understand language

Dominant for the control of speech in almost all right-handed people and most left-handed people

Area around the temporal-parietal juncture is critical for language in general



22

Right hemisphere

controls movement on the left side of the body

temporal and spatial relationships

analyzing nonverbal information

communicating emotion

23

aphasia

Damage to cells of the brain caused by a blood clot or ruptured blood vessel cause a language impairment

Disabilities in:
forming utterances
comprehension
articulation
reading
writing
naming

24

Spoonerisms

Evidence for planning
speakers hold a complete phase in a stage of readiness for speech

word reversals/phoneme reversals

stress and intonation of the phrase or sentence remain constant in the face of word changes

25

Paul Broca

Speech production was controlled in the 3rd convolution of the frontal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere

26

Carl Wernicke

Localized the understanding of speech in the first convolution of the left temporal lobe

27

Connective Fibers between Broca's and Wernicke's areas

Arcuate fasciculus

28

Penfield & Roberts

Stimulated areas of the brain to map the cortex before surgery

Dominance determined by Wada Test;
Sodium amobarbital

29

Function of the Spinal Cord

A. Serve as a conduit for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord.

B. Serve as a conduit for sensory information, which travels up the spinal cord.

C. Serve as a center for coordinating certain reflexes.

(Efferent, afferent, reflexes)

30

PNS & Speech

We know more about the PNS vs. the CNS

The circuitry of the PNS has been mapped

Cranial nerves emerge from the base of the brain

Many activate groups of muscles important to speech production

Spinal nerves activate muscles used in the control of respiration for speech