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Flashcards in Neurobiology Deck (21)
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1

Structures in the central core of the brain?
5

1. Medulla
2. Pons
3. Cerebellum
4. Thalamus
5. Hypothalamus

2

What do each of the following do:
1. Medulla 1
2. Pons 1
3. Cerebellum 2
4. Thalamus 2
5. Hypothalamus 2

1. Medulla
Regulates respiration, heart rate, blood pressure

2. Pons
Regulates sleep-wake cycles

3. Cerebellum
-Regulates reflexes and balance
-Coordinates movement

4. Thalamus
-Major sensory relay center
-Regulates higher brain centers and peripheral nervous system

5. Hypothalamus
-Emotion and motivation
-Stress reactions

3

What makes up the limbic system: 2

1. Hippocampus
2. Amygdala

4

WHat do the following do:
1. Hippocampus?
2. Amygdala?

1. Hippocampus
Formation of new memories

2. Amygdala
Governs emotions related to self-preservation (possibly relating to depression resurgance if the pt decreases the meds too soon)

5

Cerebral Cortex

4

1. Occiptial lobe
2. Temporal lobe
3. Parietal lobe
4. Frontal lobe

6

What do the following do:
1. Occiptial lobe? 1
2. Temporal lobe? 6
3. Parietal lobe? 2
4. Frontal lobe? 7

1. Occipital lobe
-Receives and processes visual information

2. Temporal lobe
-Smell
-Hearing
-Balance and equilibrium
-Emotion and motivation
-Some language comprehension
-Complex visual processing

3. Parietal lobe
-Sensory projection and association areas
-Visual/spatial abilities

4. Frontal lobe
-Goal-directed behavior
-Concentration
-Emotional control and temperament
-Motor projection and association areas
-Coordinates messages from other lobes
-Complex problem solving
-Involved in many aspects of personality

7

1. What are neurotransmitters?
2. Can do what? 2

1. Chemicals that transmit messages from neuron to neuron

2. Can excite or inhibit
Each neurotransmitter directly or indirectly influences neurons in specific portions of the brain, thereby affecting behavior

8

Common excitatory NT?

1. Acetylcholine (Ach)
2. Norepinephrine (NE)

9

Common Inhibitroy NT?
3

1. Dopamine
2. Serotonin
3. GABA
-Gamma aminobutyric acid

10

Acetylcholine
1. Function? 2
2. Malfunction? 1

1. Function
-Muscle action,
-learning, memory

2. Malfunction
-Dementia, Alzheimer’s

11

Dopamine
1. Function? 5
2. Malfunction? 2

1. Function
-Movement,
-learning,
-attention,
-emotion (mood)
-reward centers

2. Malfunction
-Too much = schizophrenia
-Too little = depression or Parkinson’s

12

Serotonin
1. Function? 4
2. Malfunction? 2

1. Function
-Mood,
-hunger,
-sleep,
-general level of arousal

2. Malfunction
-Not enough = depression
-Too much = mania

13

Norepinephrine
1. Function? 2
2. Malfunction? 1

Norepinephrine
1. Function
-Alertness,
-arousal

2. Malfunction
-Not enough = depression

14

GABA
1. Function?
2. Malfunction?

1. Inhibitory (blocks nerve impulses)
2. If not enough then can lead to seizures, tremors or insomnia

15

Glutamate
1. Function?
2. Malfunction?

1. Excitatory
2. Too much would over stimulate the brain and could lead to seizures

16

How Neurotransmitters Work:
1. The nerve impulse travels from the first neuron to another through the axon where?

2. Each synaptic knob communicates with a what of another neuron?

3. The synaptic knobs contain ____________ that store and release neurotransmitters

1. to the axon terminal and the synaptic knob

2. dendrite or cell body

3. neurovesicles

17

How Neurotransmitters Work:
1. The nerve impulse travels through the axon until it eventually reaches the what?

2. The presynaptic membrane contains neurotransmitters to be released in the what?

3. Freely flowing neurotransmitter molecules are picked up by receptors located in the what of another neuron?

1. presynaptic membrane

2. synaptic cleft

3. post synaptic membrane

18

How Neurotransmitters Work:
1. Once the neurotransmitter is picked up by receptors in the post synaptic membrane the molecule is what?

3. The normal flow of the neurotransmitter is from where to the where?

1. internalized in the neuron and the impulse continues.

2. the presynaptic membrane to the receptors on the post synaptic membrane

19

Neurotransmitter malfunction:
In certain disease states the flow of the neurotransmitter is defective.

In depression for example the molecules flow where?

back to their originating site (the presynaptic membrane) instead of to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane

20

Neurotransmitters involved in various disorders
1. Schizophrenia 4
2. Alzheimer’s disease 1
3. Depression 2
4. Generalized anxiety disorder 2
5. ADD/ADHD 2

1.
-Excess dopamine
-GABA and
-glutamate and
-ACh may also be associated

2. Acetylcholine

3.
-Norepinephrine
-Serotonin

4.
-Norepinephrine and
-serotonin

5.
-Dopamine and
-norepinephrine

21

Dopamine levels can be affected by other drugs
3 Examples?

1. Amphetamines: cause the release of dopamine

2. Cocaine: inhibits uptake of dopamine

3. Nicotine: stimulates release of dopamine and glutamate

(Epidemiological studies have found that smokers have a reduced risk of developing Parkinson’s disease)‏
(What effect would you predict smoking to have on Schizophrenia?)