Neuro-endocrinology Flashcards Preview

SF3-EXAM 4 (CAMELITA) > Neuro-endocrinology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro-endocrinology Deck (42)
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1

What are some neuroendocrine structures?

  • Neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamus
  • Pineal gland
  • Adrenal medulla

NOTE: Oxytocin and vasopressin are neurohormones from the posterior pituatary.

2

Hypothalamic releasing hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus an secreted from axonal endings at the ______.

Median eminence

3

What is the course of hypothalamic releasing hormones?

1. Hypothalamus

2. Secreted by axon endings at the median eminence

3. Enter primary plexus of fenestrated capillaries

4. Conveyed from the median eminence to a seconday capillary plexus by the hypophyseal protal vessels

5. Diffuse out of the vasculature and bind to their specific receptors on specific cell types within the anterior pituatary

4

What is the structure found between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituatary called?

Pituatary stalk

NOTE: The pituatary stock is somewhat fragile and can be disrupted by physical trauma, surgery, or hypothalamic disease

5

Oxytocin and vasopressin are made by the ________.

Hypothalamus

REMEMBER: Oxytocin and vasopressin are only stored by the posterior pituatary. The posterior pituatary makes nothing.

6

If the pituatary stalk is damaged what is one of the first things you will see?

Hyperprolatinemia

Polyuria and polydypsia (as a result of blocked ADH release)

7

Functions of the median eminence

8

What two hormones stimulate the release of prolactin?

PRFs and TRH

9

____________ is the most important regulator of prolactin.

Dopamine

10

_______________ inhibits GH.

Somatostatin

11

What is the ACTH receptor found at the target?

MC2R (Gs-linked GPCR)

NOTE: The target endocrine gland are the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex

12

What is the target of TSH?

Thyroid epithelium

13

What is the receptor for TSH?

TSH receptor (Gs-linked GPCR)

14

What are the receptors for FSH and LH?

FSH and LH receptors (Gs-linked GPCRs)

15

What is the GH receptor?

GH receptor (JAK/STAT-LINKED cytokine receptor)

16

What is the prolatin receptor?

PRL receptor (JAK/STAT-linked cytokine receptor)

17

What are the most common anterior pituaitary disorders?

Hyperprolactinemia

Growth Hormone Disorders

Pituatary Adenomas

Hypopituatarism

18

What major factors stimulate prolatin secretion?

Pregnancy and nursing

Physiologic stress

Estrogen use

Hypothyroidism

19

How does somatostatin inhibit GH?

By inhibiting PKA

20

Stimulators of GH

Stress

Exercise

Starvation

Acute hypoglycemia

Aging

Increased amino acids

Decreased fatty acids

Sleep

Ghrelin

NOTE: If you suspect that a child has short stature, you can put the child on an exercise device and growth hormone levels should increase. If the levels don't increase with exercise you know something is wrong and you can supplement growth hormone.

21

Inhibitors of GH

Hyperglycemia

Increased fatty acids

IGF

Glucocorticoids

22

____________ is the transporter for glucose in the muscle and adipose tissue. 

GLUT-4 (insulin-dependent)

NOTE: Growth hormone inhibits glucose uptake inake in muscle and adipose tissue

23

____________ is the glucose tranporter for glucose in the liver.

GLUT 2 insulin independent)

24

What affect does GH have on adipose tissue, liver and muscle?

Adipose tissue 

  • Decrease glucose uptake
  • Increase lipolysis

Liver

  • Increase in RNA synthesis
  • Increase in protein synthesis
  • Increase in gluconeogenesis
  • Increase in IGFBP
  • increase in IGFs

Muscle

  • Decrease in glucose uptake
  • Increase in amino acid uptake
  • Increase in protein synthesis

 

Muscle

25

IGFs and GH work together to increase the organ size and function of which organs?

Kidney

Pancreas

Intestine

Islets

Parathyroids

Skin

Connective tissue

Bone

Heart

Lung

26

GH causes lenthening of bone at the __________.

Epipheyseal plates

27

Side effects of too much GH

Ketogenesis

Hyperglycemia

Heat issue (like cardiomyopathy

28

What affect does nutrition have on hormone secretion?

Eating a balanced meal

  • Proteins stimulate GH, insulin, and glucagon secretion
    • ​GH inturn produces IGF

Eating a high calorie, high carbohydrate, low protein meal

  • Stimulates insulin
  • Inhibit GH and IGF

During fasting

  • ​Increases GH
  • Decreases insulin

29

GH cannot stimulate IGF production in the absence of _________.

Insulin

30

Causes of gigantism

  • Pituatary GH excess
  • Hypothalamic GHRH excess
  • Ectopic source of GH or GHRH

NOTE: Gigantism is only seen in growing children